Which method of reasoning about causal conditions is being used in the following cases? Using the concepts we have been discussing, describe five factors that make the evidence less than conclusive. Be as specific as you can.

Which method of reasoning about causal conditions is being used in the following cases? Using the concepts we have been discussing, describe five factors that make the evidence less than conclusive. Be as specific as you can.

a. Mary noticed that all the cookies that had been kept in the plastic bags were dry and those kept in the freezer or in a cookie jar had stayed fresh. She concluded that keeping cookies in a plastic bag makes them stale.

b. The city noticed that many of the parking meters were broken, and found that all of the broken ones had been tampered with by having bubble gum inserted into their coin slots. The city concluded that the gum was causing the problem.

c. Doctors at the county hospital noticed that many of their patients returned after a few days complaining about a skin rash. They did a quick survey of those complaining of the rash, and found that all of them had used the hand soap dispenser outside the entrance doors. The doctors concluded that something in the hand soap was causing the reaction.

d. The local radio station noticed that during the hours when they played only classical music their listenership went down, and that it went up again when they switched to bluegrass music. They decided to become an all bluegrass station in order to maximize listeners.

e. Voting just does not make a difference to what the government does. In every democracy, it is still big business interests that decide government policy. And in nondemocratic countries, it is still big business interests that decide what the government does. So voting makes no difference!

f. The drug company Pharmastock did a study of its new antiobesity drug. It found that those who took the drug regularly lost more every week than those who took a placebo (i.e., a tiny sugar pill). It kept a careful watch to make sure that nothing else was different between the two groups. Pharmastock reported to its shareholders that its new drug was a huge success.

g. Susan planted six rows of corn in her garden. She planted cone flowers alongside the first two rows, and miniature rose bushes along the next two, and then nothing at all along the last two. The plants all grew very well, but during the harvest she noticed that the ears of corn on the last two rows had all been eaten by bugs, but that the rest were fine. She decided that planting the flowers prevented bug infestations.

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You will develop a clear and well-articulated personal philosophy statement on teaching and learning which will be the foundation for all of your teaching practices

Assessment 1: Personal Philosophy Statement 1800 words 30% You will develop a clear and well-articulated personal philosophy statement on teaching and learning which will be the foundation for all of….

What is the difference between acceptable reasons and sufficient reasons? Give an example of reasons that are sufficient to believe something but not acceptable.

What is the difference between acceptable reasons and sufficient reasons? Give an example of reasons that are sufficient to believe something but not acceptable. Could evidence be overridden without being….

In each of the following, several epistemic reasons are given to believe something. Which is the strongest reason? What makes it stronger? a. John, Susan, and Terry all believe that the bank robber was a male. John was there during the robbery and saw the robber. Susan read about the robbery in the newspaper. Susan told Terry about the robbery. b. John and Susan both believe that the acid caused the chemical reaction. John read in a textbook about the likely causes of such a reaction. Susan performed several experiments to rule out other possible causes. c. Susan and Terry both believe that their checking accounts are overdrawn. Terry got a phone call from his bank telling him about his balance. Susan noticed it when she was balancing her checkbook last night. d. John and Susan believe that some early settlers in New England suffered real hardships. John read some original diaries written by early settlers. Susan saw a documentary on TV. e. John and Susan both believe that building a new bridge will greatly reduce the current traffic problems. John based his belief on a comparison of the proposed bridge and the traffic problems to those in other cities. Susan believes it because she heard the city planners claim that the bridge would reduce traffic problems. f. John and Susan both believe that raising the minimum wage would lead to higher unemployment among the very poor. John believes it because he thinks that it follows from what he learned in his economics class. Susan believes it because she works in an unemployment office and has seen the unemployment lines grow after the wage has been raised in the past. In (a) in (C), if the belief had been that the robber was a male with a long criminal record, then Susan’s belief would have been better justified than John’s, since it is hard to tell just by looking whether someone has a criminal record, but this is the kind of information a newspaper report would get right. For each of the other questions in (C), change the shared belief but not the kind of evidence each character relied on, so that the other person’s reasons are stronger.

In each of the following, several epistemic reasons are given to believe something. Which is the strongest reason? What makes it stronger? a. John, Susan, and Terry all believe that….