Category Archives: Philosophy

You will develop a clear and well-articulated personal philosophy statement on teaching and learning which will be the foundation for all of your teaching practices

Assessment 1: Personal Philosophy Statement 1800 words 30%

You will develop a clear and well-articulated personal philosophy statement on teaching and learning which will be the foundation for all of your teaching practices. In this personal philosophy statement, you will share your views as the purpose of teaching and the theories that guide you as a teacher. This statement will articulate related examples of practice for teaching and learning that reflect your purpose and your supported theories.

In this statement you will:

Articulate your personal views and beliefs as the purpose of teaching and learning, Identify and relate the specific educational theories, philosophies and ideas that guide you as a teacher, and Describe teaching practice examples that align with your purpose and theoretical beliefs.. Write in the first person to reflect your own voice and personality…..

What is the difference between acceptable reasons and sufficient reasons? Give an example of reasons that are sufficient to believe something but not acceptable.

What is the difference between acceptable reasons and sufficient reasons? Give an example of reasons that are sufficient to believe something but not acceptable.

Could evidence be overridden without being undermined? Explain using an example.

The traditional philosophical definition of knowledge says that knowledge is justified true belief. When presented with a definition that analyzes some idea or concept into several parts or elements, it is a good idea to investigate how those elements are related to one another. To do this, one asks whether it would be possible to have two of the elements without the third. Is it possible for someone to have a belief that is justified (i.e., based on epistemic reasons) even though the belief is not true? Try to construct stories to test….

In each of the following, several epistemic reasons are given to believe something. Which is the strongest reason? What makes it stronger? a. John, Susan, and Terry all believe that the bank robber was a male. John was there during the robbery and saw the robber. Susan read about the robbery in the newspaper. Susan told Terry about the robbery. b. John and Susan both believe that the acid caused the chemical reaction. John read in a textbook about the likely causes of such a reaction. Susan performed several experiments to rule out other possible causes. c. Susan and Terry both believe that their checking accounts are overdrawn. Terry got a phone call from his bank telling him about his balance. Susan noticed it when she was balancing her checkbook last night. d. John and Susan believe that some early settlers in New England suffered real hardships. John read some original diaries written by early settlers. Susan saw a documentary on TV. e. John and Susan both believe that building a new bridge will greatly reduce the current traffic problems. John based his belief on a comparison of the proposed bridge and the traffic problems to those in other cities. Susan believes it because she heard the city planners claim that the bridge would reduce traffic problems. f. John and Susan both believe that raising the minimum wage would lead to higher unemployment among the very poor. John believes it because he thinks that it follows from what he learned in his economics class. Susan believes it because she works in an unemployment office and has seen the unemployment lines grow after the wage has been raised in the past. In (a) in (C), if the belief had been that the robber was a male with a long criminal record, then Susan’s belief would have been better justified than John’s, since it is hard to tell just by looking whether someone has a criminal record, but this is the kind of information a newspaper report would get right. For each of the other questions in (C), change the shared belief but not the kind of evidence each character relied on, so that the other person’s reasons are stronger.

In each of the following, several epistemic reasons are given to believe something. Which is the strongest reason? What makes it stronger?

a. John, Susan, and Terry all believe that the bank robber was a male. John was there during the robbery and saw the robber. Susan read about the robbery in the newspaper. Susan told Terry about the robbery.

b. John and Susan both believe that the acid caused the chemical reaction. John read in a textbook about the likely causes of such a reaction. Susan performed several experiments to rule out other possible causes.

c. Susan and Terry both believe that their checking accounts are overdrawn. Terry got a phone call from his bank telling him about his balance. Susan noticed it when she was balancing….

Explain how a condition that is sufficient might not also be necessary. Give an example to illustrate your answer.

(When you answer these questions, pretend that you are explaining or teaching the answer to a friend who is not in the class. Doing that will force you to put in LOTS more background information than you would if you were trying to answer it for your instructor.)

a. What is the difference between a necessary and a sufficient condition?

b. Could a necessary condition also be a sufficient one? If so, give an example.

c. Could a sufficient condition also be necessary? If so, explain using the concepts we have discussed in this chapter, and give an example.

d. Explain how a condition that is sufficient might not also be necessary. Give an example to illustrate your answer.

e. If you assert that Jones is a millionaire,….

What is the difference between a premise and a conclusion?

(When you answer these questions, pretend that you are explaining or teaching the answer to a friend who is not in the class. Doing that will force you to put in LOTS more background information than you would if you were trying to answer them for your instructor.)

a. What is an argument?

b. What is the difference between a premise and a conclusion?

c. Could an argument have more than one premise? If so, give an example.

d. Could an argument have more than one conclusion? If so, give an example.

Comprehension Questions.

a. What is a premise indicator word?

b. What is a conclusion indicator?

c. Why do not we want to analyze a conditional into two assertions when we analyze an argument?

d. Why is….

Compose an argument with two premises using no indicators.

Compose an argument with two premises using no indicators.

In the following texts, identify all of the assertions made and then identify the premises and conclusion.

a. The infection is getting worse, for the fever is staying high.

b. Dinosaurs were animals and they roamed the earth before humans did. This shows that humans were not the first animals.

c. The leaves are drooping and the petals are falling off. This means that the flower is dying.

d. The dress is too short and the color is all wrong. So, you should not buy it.

e. Jones was at the party last night. Jane said so.

f. The traffic on the highway is really terrible. So we should take a side road.

g. Voting makes no difference. Politicians….

After section 2, the final  asked you to compose an argument. Were the premises dependent or independent? Compose two new arguments, one with dependent premises and one with independent premises.

After section 2, the final  asked you to compose an argument. Were the premises dependent or independent? Compose two new arguments, one with dependent premises and one with independent premises.

In the following arguments, identify the premises and conclusions and determine whether the premises are independent or dependent. (Do not worry about whether the premises or conclusion are true.)

a. The math class is worth taking because it is easy and the teacher is really nice.

b. North Korea is a dangerous country, because it is a dictatorship and all dictatorships are dangerous.

c. Jones will probably win the race. He is the fastest skater and the fastest skater usually wins.

d. Wind power is the way of the future. It is really inexpensive; it does not pollute;….

Using the following proposition as a conclusion, “Tofu is delicious,” construct two arguments:

Comprehension Questions

a. What does the word “valid” mean?      b. If an argument is valid, must its premises be true? Using the concepts discussed in this chapter, explain your answer. Give an example.      c. If an argument has false premises, must it be invalid? If not, give an example?

Using the following proposition as a conclusion, “Tofu is delicious,” construct two arguments:

a.       One that is valid and has two false premises             b. One that is invalid with two true premises

Using the validity test, assess whether each of these arguments is valid.

a. Cats are warm-blooded and warm-blooded animals are mammals, so cats are mammals.

b. The table is blue, so it is colored.

c. The War of Independence was a revolution, and revolutions are morally wrong,….

Under what conditions is testimonial evidence acceptable?

List five conditions under which visual perception is not reliable. Do the same for our sense of touch.

We learned that our senses are reliable for some topics but not others. List some topics for which vision but not touch is reliable. List some for which hearing and sight are both reliable. List some on which no sense is ever reliable.

Sometimes, our different senses provide us with conflicting evidence. Describe such a case. Which sense should we trust in a case like that? If you can, think of a general rule or principle that can be used to always decide which sense to trust when senses conflict.

Comprehension Questions

a. Under what conditions is testimonial evidence acceptable?

b. What is the difference between being trained and being….

Make a list of 10 measuring instruments you use every day. Order them from the most valid to the least valid. Order them from the most precise to the least precise. Order them from the most consistent to the least consistent.

Make a list of 10 measuring instruments you use every day. Order them from the most valid to the least valid. Order them from the most precise to the least precise. Order them from the most consistent to the least consistent.

Make a list of 5 phenomena that you do not currently know how to measure, but which you think should be measureable. Pick one of them and think of a way to measure it.

In the following passages, identify the premises and conclusion(s). Then identify whether the argument relies on evidence from observation, testimony, or measurement. Finally, using the concepts we have discussed in this chapter, identify some questions that need to be considered in deciding whether the argument’s premises are acceptable. Be as specific as you….