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Read the following article.

What is stress?

A. For many years there has been much debate about what stress is. We all feel we know what it is because we all experience it, when preparing for an exam, for example, or experiencing problems at work. Defining stress, however, is not so easy. The most commonly accepted definition of the word is by psychologist Richard S. Lazarus. He describes stress as a condition or feeling that is experienced when a person thinks that they do not have the ability to deal with the demands that are put on them.

B. Hans Selye, who carried out research into stress in the 1950s, argued that ‘stress is not necessarily negative’ – it can have positive effects as well, it all depends on how you take it. Being under stress in an exam, for example, can make you perform better. It is generally agreed, however, that long-term stress, is a ‘negative’, producing a number of harmful effects on the mind and body.

C. In 1932, Walter Cannon carried out research into how people react when they are stressed or in great danger. His work proved that when someone experiences a shock or thinks they are in danger, certain changes happen in the body. This makes us faster and stronger. It also makes us very focused on the danger, so we don’t see, or ignore, other things going on around us. All of this helps us to survive life-threatening situations.

D. Over time, however, being constantly prepared for danger can have a negative effect on our bodies. We become excitable, anxious and nervous and find some everyday tasks difficult to do. We become less efficient and find it difficult to make good decisions. To avoid long-term stress, we need to acquire a controlled and balanced approach to life. In some cases, this may require a complete change of lifestyle.

Q1. Decide whether these statements are True (T), False (F) or Not Given (NG).

1. Everyone knows what stress is, but not many people can explain what it actually is.

2. Not many people agree with Richard Lazarus’s definition of stress.

3. Stress can sometimes be good for us.

4. Most people respond in the same way to stress.

5. People who are stressed are more aware of what is happening around them.

6. Eating a healthy diet helps people deal with stress. Answer

Q2. Find words or phrases in the text that mean:

1. needs (paragraph A)

2. do an action (paragraph B)

3. respond (paragraph C)

4. obtain (paragraph D)

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Problem Description The MNIST database of handwritten digits (from 0 to 9) has a training set of 55,000 examples, and a test set of 10,000 examples. The digits have been size-normalized and centered in a fixed-size image (28×28 pixels) with values from 0 to 1. You can use the following code with TensorFlow in Python to download the data. from keras.datasets import mnist (x_train, y_train), (x_test, y_test) = mnist.load_data() Every MNIST data point has two parts: an image of a handwritten digit and a corresponding label. We will call the images ? and the labels ?. Both the training set and test set contain ? and ?. Each image is 28 pixels by 28 pixels and can be flattened into a vector of 28×28 = 784 numbers. As mentioned, the corresponding labels in the MNIST are numbers between 0 and 9, describing which digit a given image is of. In this assignment, we regard the labels as one-hot vectors, i.e. 0 in most dimensions, and 1 in a single dimension. In this case, the ?-th digit will be represented as a vector which is 1 in the ? dimensions. For example, 3 would be [0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0]. The assignment aims to build NNs for classifying handwritten digits in the MNIST database, train it on the training set and test it on the test set. Please read the following comments and requirements very carefully before starting the assignment: 1. The assignment is based on the content of Labs. 2. In Lecture 1, we talked about the use of training set, validation set and test set in machine learning. In the assignment, you are asked to train the NN on the training set and test the NN on the test set, instead of doing the two steps on the same data set as what was done in Lab 5. You do NOT need the validation set in the assignment. 3. In the assignment, the performance of a NN is measured by the its prediction accuracy in classifying images from the test set, i.e. number of the correctly predicted images / number of the images in the test set. 4. You are asked to model THREE NNs by changing the architecture. For example, you may change the number of layers, use different type of layers, and try various activation layers. 5. You are encouraged to repeatedly train and test your NNs with different parameter setting, e.g. learning rate. 6. Your report MUST at least contain the following content a. Names and student numbers of all group members;

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