Read the following article.
What is stress?
A. For many years there has been much debate about what stress is. We all feel we know what it is because we all experience it, when preparing for an exam, for example, or experiencing problems at work. Defining stress, however, is not so easy. The most commonly accepted definition of the word is by psychologist Richard S. Lazarus. He describes stress as a condition or feeling that is experienced when a person thinks that they do not have the ability to deal with the demands that are put on them.
B. Hans Selye, who carried out research into stress in the 1950s, argued that ‘stress is not necessarily negative’ – it can have positive effects as well, it all depends on how you take it. Being under stress in an exam, for example, can make you perform better. It is generally agreed, however, that long-term stress, is a ‘negative’, producing a number of harmful effects on the mind and body.
C. In 1932, Walter Cannon carried out research into how people react when they are stressed or in great danger. His work proved that when someone experiences a shock or thinks they are in danger, certain changes happen in the body. This makes us faster and stronger. It also makes us very focused on the danger, so we don’t see, or ignore, other things going on around us. All of this helps us to survive life-threatening situations.
D. Over time, however, being constantly prepared for danger can have a negative effect on our bodies. We become excitable, anxious and nervous and find some everyday tasks difficult to do. We become less efficient and find it difficult to make good decisions. To avoid long-term stress, we need to acquire a controlled and balanced approach to life. In some cases, this may require a complete change of lifestyle.
Q1. Decide whether these statements are True (T), False (F) or Not Given (NG).
1. Everyone knows what stress is, but not many people can explain what it actually is.
2. Not many people agree with Richard Lazarus’s definition of stress.
3. Stress can sometimes be good for us.
4. Most people respond in the same way to stress.
5. People who are stressed are more aware of what is happening around them.
6. Eating a healthy diet helps people deal with stress. Answer
Q2. Find words or phrases in the text that mean:
1. needs (paragraph A)
2. do an action (paragraph B)
3. respond (paragraph C)
4. obtain (paragraph D)