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1a. Distinguish between the following set of terms: (10 Marks) i. Semantics and syntax ii. Static semantics and dynamic semantics iii. Typed and untyped languages iv. Static versus dynamic typing v. Weak and strong typing b. There are many approaches to formal semantics which can be grouped to three major classes. Explain them as listed. (6 Marks) i. Denotational semantics ii. Operational semantics iii. Axiomatic semantics c. Briefly explain prolog programming. (4 Marks)

2a. Describe the following with examples: (8 Marks) i. Assignment-free language ii. Declarative languages (non procedural languages iii. A meta-circular iv. A self-interpreter b. Outline the rules for unification in prolog. (3 Marks) c. Consider this prolog program (9 Marks) rainy(vancouver) rainy(sept_iles). snowy(x) :- rainy(x), cold(x) Draw the search tree for the query snowy(C)
The search begins at snowy(C) and finds the rule snowy(X), which then becomes the goal, with C unified to X. Prolog must then establish both rainy(X) and cold (X). It establishes rainy (X) by finding rainy(vancouver), thus (temporarily) unifying X with vancouver. But then it must also find cold(vancouver). Because this fails, prolog backtracks and so it unifies rainy with sep tiles. Going back up the tree, it finds cold(sep tiles) and returns snowy(sept iles







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