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determine the height that the water level in the reservoir must be above the centre of the outlet pipe
A reservoir must discharge to the atmosphere via a short pipeline. The entrance to the pipeline is sharp, and the diameter is 0.3m for the first 10m. The pipeline then expands suddenly to 0.45m diameter for the last 10m. For both pipes l = 0.06. If 0.5m3 /s of water must be discharged from the pipeline, determine the height that the water level in the reservoir must be above the centre of the outlet pipe (a) ignoring minor losses; (b) taking both friction and minor losses into account; and (c) if the smaller pipeline has three 90° bends with r/D = 1 – 2 in addition to the losses in (b).