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PICO and Literature Search Assignment

This assignment will be completed individually.

PICO questions are used by researchers to focus research questions and develop an efficient literature search strategy. You will create 3 PICO questions and a search strategy for each to find research studies that help answer one of your PICO questions.

PICO Questions

· Write 3 PICO questions related to nursing . Use the PICO templates in the EBP Step by Step 3 article to help create your questions.

· Identify the PICO elements for each question.

Search Strategy and Execution

· Develop a search strategy using at least 3 keywords, 1 synonym, and 1 MeSH term for your PICO questions.

· Using any one of your three PICO questions and the search strategy for it, locate 4 articles that help answer it.

· Your articles must be primary source quantitative research articles.

· The population studied, issues/intervention of interest, and outcomes measured in the article should match the P, I, and C of your PICO question.

· No article can be older than 2015.

· Obtain pdfs the four articles you selected.

Submitting Your Results

· On a Word document, write each PICO question with elements identified and the search terms for each.

· Highlight the PICO question for which you selected articles.

· Provide APA references for your selected articles.

· See the example at the end of this document for suggested formatting. You may use it as a template.

· Name each document as follows:

· Lastname PICO

· Lastname article 1

· Lastname article 2

· Lastname article 3

· Lastname article 4

· Drop all five documents (Word document and pdfs of the articles) to submission folder by the deadline.

PICO Questions and Literature Search Rubric

Grading Criterion Pts Mastery







1 or 0

1. Elements of requirements included (3 foreground questions; 3 background questions; PICO Identification for each of the 3 questions; at least 3 keywords, 1 synonym, and 1 MeSH term for each of the 3 questions) = 33 elements total 33 elements included 32 elements included 31 elements included 30 (1 pt) or 29 or fewer (0 pts) elements included
2. All 3 PICOT questions are nursing related

All 3 questions are nursing related 2 questions are nursing related 1 question is nursing related No questions are nursing related (0 pts)
3. All parts of the PICO are correctly identified = 12 elements 11 to 12 elements are correctly identified 9 to 10 elements are correctly identified 7 to 8 elements are correctly identified 6 (1 pt) or 5 or fewer (0 pts) elements are correctly identified
4. Articles are primary source quantitative research reports. All 4 are primary source reports 3 are primary source reports 2 are primary source reports 1 (1 pt) or 0 (0 pts) are primary source reports
5. All articles help answer the same PICO question All 4 help answer the same PICO question 3 help answer the same PICO question 2 help answer the same PICO question 1 (1 pt) or 0 (0 pts) help answer the same PICO question
6. Article citations provided in APA format (see example on next page) 0 to 1 unique APA elements are incorrect 2 to 3 unique APA elements are incorrect 4 to 5 unique APA elements are incorrect 6 (1 pt) or 7 or more (0 pts) unique APA elements are incorrect
7. Articles are no older than 2015 All 4 are no older than 2015 3 are no older than 2015 2 are no older than 2015 1 (1 pt) or 0 (0 pts) are no older than 2015
8. Pdfs of all articles are provided (all or nothing) Yes No (0 pts)
Total points / 8 = X.XX = conversion to 100 points

Grade Calculation

Score of 0 to 4 will be determined based on the performance level for each criterion in the grading rubric. Scores for all 8 criteria will be added and then divided by 8 for a final score between 0.00 and 4.00. Grades out of 100 points will be converted as follows and entered into the gradebook.

Score out of 4 Point Grade
4.00 100/100
3.75-3.99 96/100
3.50-3.74 92/100
3.25-3.49 90/100
3.00-3.24 88/100
2.75-2.99 86/100
2.50-2.74 83/100
2.25-2.49 80/100
2.00-2.24 77/100
1.01-1.99 74/100
</= 1.00 70/100

Student Name

PICO Questions and Literature Search


Background question:

Does animal therapy help Alzheimer’s patients calm down during sundowning?

Foreground question:

In nursing home residents with Alzheimer’s disease, what is the effect of animal-assisted therapy compared to usual care on the intensity of agitation?

P: nursing home residents with Alzheimer’s disease

I: animal-assisted therapy

C: usual care

O: intensity of agitation

Keywords: animal-assisted therapy, Alzheimer’s disease, sundowning, nursing home residents

Synonyms: dementia, agitation

MeSH terms: animal assisted therapy, Alzheimer disease, psychomotor agitation, nursing homes


Background question:

Foreground question:







MeSH terms:


Background question:

Foreground question:







MeSH terms:

ARTICLE CITATIONS (must be double spaced, no extra line spacing between citations, Times New Roman 12 pt font, hanging indent, in alpha order, and correctly formatted for scholarly articles in a journal for full points for APA)

Majic, T., Gutzmann, H., Heinz, A., Lang, U. E., & Rapp, M. A. (2013). Animal-assisted therapy and agitation and depression in nursing home residents with dementia: A matched case-control trial. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(11), 1052-1059. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2013.03.004

Nordgren, L., & Engström, G. (2014). Effects of dog-assisted intervention on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia. Nursing Older People, 26(3), 31-38. https://doi.org/10.7748/nop2014.

Olsen, C., Pedersen, I., Bergland, A., Enders‐Slegers, M., Patil, G., & Ihlebæk, C. (2016). Effect of animal-assisted interventions on depression, agitation and quality of life in nursing home residents suffering from cognitive impairment or dementia: A cluster randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31(12), 1312-1321. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4436

Swall, A., Ebbeskog, B., Lundh Hagelin, C., & Fagerberg, I. (2017). Stepping out of the shadows of Alzheimer’s disease: A study of older people with Alzheimer’s disease caring for a therapy dog. International Journal of Studies on Health & Well-Being, 12(1), 124-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482631.2017.1347013

Updated 11/14/2019 CJP

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