Why is Sulphuric acid used in the synthesis of aspirin?

Extended Essay

Chemistry

 

To what extent does the effect of temperature change impacting on the purification of Aspirin synthesized?

Word Count: 4006

 

 

Table of Contents 1. Abstract 3 2. Introduction 3 3. Research Question 3 4. Background Information-Procedures and techniques 4 4.1 Synthesis of Aspirin: 4 4.2 Using the re-crystallization procedure to purify the Aspirin: 4 4.3 Using the melting point equipment identify the purity of Aspirin: 5 5.Mechanism 6 5.1 Proton-Proton fusion reaction: 6 5.2 Catalytic Ester regeneration: 7 6. Methodology 7 7. Result: 8 Mechanism (1) : 8 Goal for Today (13rd June) At 50 degree Celsius temperature : 8 2. Data collection (14 June) – Under 60 degree Celsius. 9 Data collection (14 June) – Under 70 degree Celsius. 10 2. Data collection (19 June) – Under 80 degree Celsius. 11 Data collection (19 June) – Under 90 degree Celsius. 12 Mechanism (2): 14 Data collection (19 June) – Under 90 degree Celsius. 14 Data collection (19 June) – Under 80 degree Celsius. 15 Data collection (19 June) – Under 70 degree Celsius. 15 Data collection (19 June) – Under 60 degree Celsius. 16 Data collection (19 June) – Under 50 degree Celsius. 17 8. Analysis 18 Graphical representation for Mechanism 1: 19 Graphical representation for Mechanism 2: 20 9. Interpretation 20 10. Conclusion 21 11. Evaluation 22 11.1: Random error: 22 11.2 Systematic error: 22 11.3 Evaluation of sources: 23 12. Questions to be answered 23 12.1 Why do you interest it? 23 12.2 What are the effect of temperature bringing the meanings that help life? 23 Bibliography 24

1. Abstract

The original name of Aspirin is Acetylsalicylic which is mainly used to make drugs nowadays. The properties of Aspirin are anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and salicylic. The chemical product which has such properties will be useful to make effective and powerful drugs. Aspirin helps to reduce pain, inflammation and fever. Here in this experiment the main purpose is to determine the effects of temperature changes at the time of purification of Aspirin. To determine this stage here we have used Ethanoic Anhydride and Salicylic Acid to synthesize the Aspirin or Acetylsalicylic Acid. After completing the synthesis process the sample Aspirin will be purified and the TLC analysis procedure will be applied to the sample to check the purity.

2. Introduction

One of the most widely sold drugs is Aspirin. This drug mainly uses to reduce pain and fever. Besides this it helps to reduce redness, soreness and swelling. The Aspirin was discovered in England in 1763. It was produced from the bark of Willow trees with the helpful result in alleviating suffering due to aches, pains and fever. Here all the process is documented properly. To obtain the Aspirin several time of re-crystallization procedure was used. Then the accurate quantity of Aspirin was produced. After this stage we can compare the purity of Aspirin table and the crystal Aspirin which was produced after the experiment. Here also the melting point was utilized to get the purity of the crystal.

3. Research Question

 

To what extent does the effect of temperature change impacting on the purification of Aspirin synthesized.

4. Background Information-Procedures and techniques

 

4.1 Synthesis of Aspirin:

The reaction at the time of formation of Aspirin is given below[footnoteRef:1]. This type of organic synthesis is an etherification effect between the composite which contains Hydroxyl group (OH group) and any kind of acid. Ethanoic Anhydride is a kind of organic acid. In this acid the hydroxyl group will be replaced. The hydrogen ion of the hydroxyl group will be replaced by the carboxyl carbon group. This carboxyl carbon group is denoted by the symbol C=O. Esterification is a process where the acid formed reacting with the hydroxyl group and the carboxyl carbon group of the phenol or alcohol to produce the carboxyl ester. Here a catalyst is used to make fast reaction. The name of the catalyst is sulfuric acid and the symbol of it is H2SO4. At the time of the synthesis the hydroxyl group will be attached with the salicylic acid and produce one molecule of water. [1: Roig, I. (2014). Synthesis of Aspirin. ]

4.2 Using the re-crystallization procedure to purify the Aspirin:

Here the re-crystallization procedure was used. This re-crystallization[footnoteRef:2] procedure is a very effective process to purify the Aspirin. The re-crystallization procedure takes compensation of the relative contaminates solubility’s comparing with the Aspirin. Here water is used as a solvent. In this process such kind of solvent we need where the solid particle will be easily soluble in any temperature either its low or high. But here the Aspirin is not soluble in cold water. That’s why at first the Aspirin crystal will be mixed with hot water to make it soluble and then leave the solution to cool down. The impurities are classified into two categories such as soluble and insoluble. Here the acetic acid is used to purify the solid particle. Acetic acid is basically soluble in water. And these impurities will be separated very easily from Aspirin. After that the liquid will be filtered using filter paper. As the acetic acid is soluble then the Aspirin will be there in the filter paper and the liquid will be drained. In this way the purity of the product will be analyzed. [2: Kotak, U., Prajapati, V., Solanki, H., Jani, G., & Jha, P. (2015). Co-crystallization technique its rationale and recent progress. World J Pharm Pharm Sci, 4(4), 1484-508. ]

4.3 Using the melting point equipment identify the purity of Aspirin:

Here, another part named the melting point determination has been used to provide evidence regarding the Aspirin purity. Melting point determination is a very useful process to purify a solid product. The melting point equipment is mainly used for this procedure. Here the range of the pure Aspirin melting point is 138 degrees to 140 degrees and the range of melting point of salicylic acid is 158 degree to 161 degree. There is an attraction force which helps the molecules to form crystal together.

5.Mechanism

 

 

 

5.1 Proton-Proton fusion reaction:

The two primary reagents in the reaction of aspirin are Salicylic acid (C7H6O3) and Ethanoic Anhydride (C4H6O3). Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is used as the catalyst in this reaction for esterification. The Oxygen from the Ethanoic Anhydride approaches towards the positive charge that is the Hydrogen ion (H+) from the OH- group that is attached to the 3- carbon position of the Salicylic acid. As a result there are 2 molecules of Acetate group (CH3COO-) in the reaction medium. Now 1 molecule of these Acetate groups will be joined with the Oxygen of the 3 carbon position of the Salicylic acid, forming Acetyl Salicylic acid or the Aspirin and the other Acetate group will be attached to the free OH- group to form Acetic acid (CH3COOH).

5.2 Catalytic Ester regeneration:

There are 3 kinds of esters which are yield from Aspirin and these esters are considered as the derives of Aspirin. These three esters are produced from N-Benzamide, N-acetamide and N,N-diethylglycolamide[footnoteRef:3], with the help of the concentrated Sulfuric acid. In organic chemistry it is observed that ester is produced from acid (-COOH group) and alcohol (-OH group). In the synthesis of Aspirin the two reagents are the Salicylic acid (C7H6O3) and the Ethanoic Anhydride (C4H6O3), which is assumed as the alcohol. Ester is formed after the elimination of 1 mole water from the alcohol and the acid. But the thing is that the water that is H2O is the combination of H+ and the OH- ion. Now the H+ derived from the acid leaving the acetate group and the OH- derived from the alcohol. [3: Moerk Nielsen, N., & Bundgaard, H. (1989). Evaluation of glycolamide esters and various other esters of aspirin as true aspirin prodrugs. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 32(3), 727-734. ]

6. Methodology

 

· At first 2 gm. of Salicylic acid is taken into a flask, which is dry pear after weighing perfectly.

· Then a perfect quantity of 4 ml of Ethanoic Anhydride is measured with the help of 2 ml peptide and is poured in the Salicylic acid of 2 gm.

· After that 8 drops of concentrated Sulfuric acid is added to the mixture.

· Now the mixture is to be swirled for 10 minutes maximum.

· Next 10 ml of Cold distilled water is included in the mixture.

· In the next step the flask is positioned in Ice bath followed by stirring the mixture strenuously.

· After some time a precipitation will be appeared in the flask.

· Then the precipitation is filtered with the help of a Buchner funnel and a suction apparatus.

· The derived product is then washed with cold water and then taken to a watch glass for some hours to be dried.

· Then the filter paper is taken for measuring the weight.

· The whole methodology is carried out in different temperature ranges, such as 500C, 700C, 900C and 1100C.

7. Result:

 

Substance Mass(g) Mole Volume (ml)
Salicylic Acid 2 1  
Anhydride acetic   1 4
Concentrated Sulfuric acid   1 Excess ( 16 droplets)

 

 

Mechanism (1) :

Goal for Today (13rd June) At 50 degree Celsius temperature :

Repeat Mass of Salicylic acid (measuring boat include)

(+/- 0.0001g)

Mass of measuring boat after transferring the substance. (+/-0.0001g) Mass of Salicylic acid involved in the reaction.

(+/- 0.0001g)

Melting point
1 2.022 0.025 2.022 – 0.025 = 1.997 144
2 2.053 0.009 2.053 – 0.009 = 2.044 143.7
3 2.045 0.020 2.045 – 0.020 = 2.025 144
4 2.066 0.008 2.066 – 0.008 = 2.058 143.5
5 2.019 0.013 2.019 – 0.013 = 2.006 143

 

Repeat Mass of the filter paper

(gm.)

Mass of the filter after drying product under the sun for 1 day

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin produced

(gm.)

1 1.030 3.006 3.006 – 1.030 = 1.976 gm.
2 1.010 2.912 2.912 – 1.010 = 1.902 gm.
3 1.043 2.876 2.876 – 1.043 = 1.833 gm.
4 1.004 2.934 2.934 – 1.004 = 1.930 gm.
5 1.007 2.898 2.898 – 1.007 = 1.891 gm.

 

 

2. Data collection (14 June) – Under 60 degree Celsius.

 

Repeat Mass of Salicylic acid (measuring boat include)

(+/- 0.0001g)

Mass of measuring boat after transferring the substance. (+/-0.0001g) Mass of Salicylic acid involved in the reaction.

(+/- 0.0001g)

Melting point of aspirin
1 2.023 0.003 2.023 – 0.003 = 2.020 141
2 2.004 0.005 2.004 – 0.005 = 1.999 140.5
3 2.007 0.005 2.007 – 0.005 = 2.002 141.3
4 2.005 0.006 2.005 – 0.006 = 1.999 140.1
5 2.005 0.004 2.005 – 0.004 = 2.001 140.2

 

 

 

Repeat Mass of the filter paper

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin + filter after let dry under the sun for 1 day

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin produced

(gm.)

1 0.994 2.848 2.848 – 0.994 = 1.854 gm.
2 1.049 2.875 2.875 – 1.049 = 1.826 gm.
3 1.018 2.789 2.789 – 1.018 = 1.771 gm.
4 1.030 2.833 2.833 – 1.030 = 1.803 gm.
5 1.022 2.874 2.874 – 1.022 = 1.852 gm.

 

 

Data collection (14 June) – Under 70 degree Celsius.

 

Repeat Mass of Salicylic acid (measuring boat include)

(+/- 0.0001g)

Mass of measuring boat after transferring the substance. (+/-0.0001g) Mass of Salicylic acid involved in the reaction.

(+/- 0.0001g)

Melting point of aspirin
1 2.005 0.002 2.005 – 0.002 = 2.003 142.5
2 2.008 0.003 2.008 – 0.003 = 2.005 141.3
3 2.003 0.001 2.003 – 0.001 = 2.002 142.2
4 2.005 0.002 2.005 – 0.002 = 2.003 141.6
5 2.002 0.001 2.002 – 0.001 = 2.001 142.1

 

 

Repeat Mass of the filter paper

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin + filter after let dry under the sun for 1 day

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin produced

(gm.)

1 0.998 2.863 2.863 – 0.998 = 1.865 gm.
2 1.058 2.912 2.912 – 1.058 = 1.854 gm.
3 1.037 2.840 2.840 – 1.037 = 1.803 gm.
4 1.003 2.824 2.824 – 1.003 = 1.821 gm.
5 1.002 2.831 2.831 – 1.002 = 1.829 gm.

 

 

2. Data collection (19 June) – Under 80 degree Celsius.

 

Repeat Mass of Salicylic acid (measuring boat include)

(+/- 0.0001g)

Mass of measuring boat after transferring the substance. (+/-0.0001g) Mass of Salicylic acid involved in the reaction.

(+/- 0.0001g)

Melting point of aspirin
1 2.001 0.003 2.001 – 0.003 = 1.998 140
2 2.006 0.001 2.006 – 0.001 = 2.005 139.5
3 2.005 0.003 2.005 – 0.003 = 2.002 139
4 2.006 0.001 2.006 – 0.001 = 2.005 140
5 2.010 0.004 2.010 – 0.004 = 2.006 140

 

 

Repeat Mass of the filter paper

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin + filter after let dry under the sun for 1 day

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin produced

(gm.)

1 1.013 2.843 2.843 – 1.013 = 1.830 gm.
2 1.039 2.852 2.852 – 1.039 = 1.813 gm.
3 1.041 2.901 2.901 – 1.041 = 1.860 gm.
4 1.020 2.885 2.885 – 1.020 = 1.865 gm.
5 1.015 2.885 2.885 – 1.015 = 1.870 gm.

 

 

Data collection (19 June) – Under 90 degree Celsius.

 

Repeat Mass of Salicylic acid (measuring boat include)

(+/- 0.0001g)

Mass of measuring boat after transferring the substance. (+/-0.0001g) Mass of Salicylic acid involved in the reaction.

(+/- 0.0001g)

Melting point of aspirin
1 2.006 0.006 2.006 – 0.006 = 2.000 139.8
2 2.005 0.001 2.005 – 0.001 = 2.004 140
3 2.006 0.001 2.006 – 0.001 = 2.005 139.7
4 2.002 0.000 2.002 – 0.000 = 2.002 140.1
5 2.005 0.001 2.005 – 0.001 = 2.004 140.3

 

 

Repeat Mass of the filter paper

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin + filter after let dry under the sun for 1 day

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin produced

(gm.)

1 1.029 2.900 2.900 – 1.029 = 1.871 gm.
2 1.019 2.904 2.904 – 1.019 = 1.885 gm.
3 1.047 2.756 2.756 – 1.047 = 1.709 gm.
4 1.015 2.859 2.859 – 1.015 = 1.844 gm.
5 1.024 2.857 2.857 – 1.024 = 1.833 gm.

 

 

Mechanism (2):

Data collection (19 June) – Under 90 degree Celsius.

Repeat Mass of Salicylic acid (measuring boat include)

(+/- 0.0001g)

Mass of measuring boat after transferring the substance. (+/-0.0001g) Mass of Salicylic acid involved in the reaction.

(+/- 0.0001g)

Melting point of aspirin
1 2.009 0.009 2.009 – 0.009 = 2.000 142
2 2.016 0.013 2.016 – 0.013 = 2.003 143
3 2.018 0.018 2.018 – 0.018 = 2.000 141

 

 

Repeat Mass of the filter paper

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin + filter after let dry under the sun for 1 day

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin produced

(gm.)

1 1.050 3.073 3.073 – 1.050 = 2.023 gm.
2 1.062 2.889 2.889 – 1.062 = 1.827 gm.
3 1.037 2.837 2.837 – 1.037 = 1.800 gm.

 

 

Data collection (19 June) – Under 80 degree Celsius.

Repeat Mass of Salicylic acid (measuring boat include)

(+/- 0.0001g)

Mass of measuring boat after transferring the substance. (+/-0.0001g) Mass of Salicylic acid involved in the reaction.

(+/- 0.0001g)

Melting point of aspirin
1 2.010 0.007 2.010 – 0.007 = 2.003 150
2 2.007 0.008 2.007 – 0.008 = 1.999 149
3 2.019 0.016 2.019 – 0.016 = 2.003 142

 

 

Repeat Mass of the filter paper

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin + filter after let dry under the sun for 1 day

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin produced

(gm.)

1 1.041 2.921 2.921 – 1.041 = 1.880 gm.
2 1.032 2.873 2.873 – 1.032 = 1.841 gm.
3 1.011 2.893 2.893 – 1.011 = 1.882 gm.

 

 

Data collection (19 June) – Under 70 degree Celsius.

Repeat Mass of Salicylic acid (measuring boat include)

(+/- 0.0001g)

Mass of measuring boat after transferring the substance. (+/-0.0001g) Mass of Salicylic acid involved in the reaction.

(+/- 0.0001g)

Melting point of aspirin
1 2.013 0.011 2.013 – 0.011 = 2.002 gm. 145
2 2.017 0.007 2.017 – 0.007 = 2.010 gm. 146
3 2.006 0.004 2.006 – 0.004 = 2.002 gm. 143

 

 

Repeat Mass of the filter paper

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin + filter after let dry under the sun for 1 day

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin produced

 

(gm.)

1 1.013 2.857 2.857 – 1.013 = 1.844 gm.
2 1.041 2.943 2.943 – 1.041 = 1.902 gm.
3 0.999 3.016 3.016 – 0.999 = 2.017 gm.

 

 

Data collection (19 June) – Under 60 degree Celsius.

Repeat Mass of Salicylic acid (measuring boat include)

(+/- 0.0001g)

Mass of measuring boat after transferring the substance. (+/-0.0001g) Mass of Salicylic acid involved in the reaction.

(+/- 0.0001g)

Melting point of aspirin
1 2.008 0.000 2.008 – 0.000 = 2.008 141
2 2.005 0.001 2.005 – 0.001 = 2.004 144
3 2.004 0.002 2.004 – 0.002 = 2.002 142.4

 

 

Repeat Mass of the filter paper

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin + filter after let dry under the sun for 1 day

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin produced

 

(gm.)

1 1.058 2.924 2.924 – 1.058 = 1.866 gm.
2 1.033 2.868 2.868 – 1.033 = 1.835 gm.
3 1.022 2.921 2.921 – 1.022 = 1.899 gm.

 

 

Data collection (19 June) – Under 50 degree Celsius.

Repeat Mass of Salicylic acid (measuring boat include)

(+/- 0.0001g)

Mass of measuring boat after transferring the substance. (+/-0.0001g) Mass of Salicylic acid involved in the reaction.

(+/- 0.0001g)

Melting point of aspirin

(+/-0.5)

1 2.009 0.008 2.009 – 0.008 = 2.001 139.5
2 2.005 0.002 2.005 – 0.002 = 2.003 141.5
3 2.005 0.001 2.005 – 0.001 = 2.004 140.5

 

 

Repeat Mass of the filter paper

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin + filter after let dry under the sun for 1 day

(gm.)

Mass of aspirin produced

 

(gm.)

1 1.016 2.889 2.889 – 1.016 = 1.873
2 1.024 2.959 2.959 – 1.024 = 1.935
3 1.032 2.872 2.872 – 1.032 = 1.840

 

 

8. Analysis

 

The result of all of the tables given above shows the ultimate yield value of the Aspirin. There are two mechanism, – mechanism (1) and mechanism (2). In mechanism (1), there are 5 yield values of mass of Aspirin, whereas, in mechanism (2), there are 3 yield values. In each of the temperature scale, 2 tables are given. In the first table in each temperature scale, the mass of Salicylic acid is calculated after transferring the substance. In the second table the mass of Aspirin is produced after subtracting the mass of the filter paper form the total mass. It has been observed from the tables that in each cases the values of the mass of the salicylic acid do not alter much among each other and similar case for the mass of the aspirin also.

Graphical representation for Mechanism 1:

 

 

Graphical representation for Mechanism 2:

 

 

9. Interpretation

 

Here, for plotting the yield graph the average values of 5 measurements are taken for each temperature & for plotting the purity graph the average value of 3 measurements are taken for each temperature. Now, the plot is obtained in excel which are given above.

From The above graphs it is clear that the behavior of Yield of Salicylic Acid & purity of Aspirin is different in two mechanisms. The yield is maximum at 50 °C for mechanism 1 where the temperature is gradually increased. The purity is also maximum at 50 °C for mechanism 1. Whereas, in mechanism 2 it is observed that the Yield is maximum at 60 °C to 70 °C. The purity is maximum at 70 °C in mechanism 2. In the purity graph of mechanism 1 it is seen that the purity of aspirin is maximum at 50°C & reduces to minimum at 60°C, again increases up to 80 °C & decreases finally . In the yield graph of Salicylic acid of mechanism 1 it is seen that the yield of aspirin is maximum in 50 °C and then reduces gradually. Now, in mechanism 2 of yield curve it is see that the yield of salicylic acid starts from a value of 2.002 & then goes to maximum at 60 °C, stays there up to 70 °C & then decreases gradually & goes to minimum at 90 °C. In the purity graph of mechanism 2 it is seen that it starts from a value close to 1.88 at 50 °C, then it goes to maximum at 70 °C & then goes to minimum at 80 °C and finally becomes close to 1.88 at 90 °C. Hence it can be concluded that rising temperature characteristics is different from reducing temperature characteristics and so Yield of Salicylic Acid is & purity of aspirin is not constant at a certain temperature, it depends on what mechanism that is used.

10. Conclusion

 

The whole procedure is segregated into two parts, each of which is consisting of determining the mass of the Salicylic acid and the mass of the Aspirin in different temperature scale. It has been found that if the mass of the Salicylic acid alters with the variation of the melting point of the Aspirin. That means for a specific melting point of the Aspirin, the mass of the Salicylic acid is specific. The concentrated Sulfuric acid is used as the positive catalyst, hence it has been poured in to the medium. The main objective of the procedure is to find the temperature at which the mass of the purified Aspirin is optimum.

11. Evaluation

 

11.1: Random error:

In the data tables mass of Salicylic acid, mass of measuring boat after transferring the substance and mass of Salicylic acid involved in the reaction, all are entitled with a random error of ± 0.0001 gm. But while doing the reaction it is seen that the errors are exceeded the limit of the recommended error limit. It is not possible for the human beings to get the quantity of different kinds of products in a chemical reaction accurately. As a result the random error is occurred. In case of the synthesis and the purification of Aspirin the same thing is observed. The random error is can be said as the frequent error that is happened due to the fluctuation of the medium of the reaction.

11.2 Systematic error:

The systematic error is the error that happens when there is a dispute in the system or in the reaction medium. In case of the Aspirin synthesis the reagents have not been measured properly and hence the systematic error has been happened. The practical procedure should be carried out very accurately and precisely with ultimate patience, so that the systematic error can be reduced to some great extent. Apart from that the instruments and the other equipment should be required to be checked before the procedure gets started.

11.3 Evaluation of sources:

The information required for making the lab report has been collected from various scholarly articles, which are related to the Aspirin synthesis and purification. The Google books are also there to help to complete the report successfully. Information regarding the process of purification in Aspirin synthesis, the proton-proton fusion reaction, and regeneration of esters have been gathered from various useful websites and articles.

12. Questions to be answered

 

12.1 Why do you interest it?

The chemical reaction of the synthesis of Aspirin involves various steps and proper study is required to execute the whole operation. There is a great chance to be familiar with different kind of reagents and equipment. In the synthesis of Aspirin, the reagents are Salicylic acid and the Ethanoic Anhydride. The properties of these two reagents are come to know precisely. Besides, the reaction involves numerous number of graph to be made upon different observations of the chemical reactions at different parameters.

12.2 What are the effect of temperature bringing the meanings that help life?

The effect of temperature in the Aspirin analysis is needed to be considered. The Aspirin is used to lower the temperature of the body and hence in high fever the Aspirin is consumed. In this aspect the amount of the reagents are required to be measured very carefully. The Aspirin is available in the form of crystals.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

 

Aspirin Synthesis., Retrieved from:

http://www.lahc.edu/classes/chemistry/arias/Exp%205%20-%20AspirinF11.pdf

Synthesis and Characterization of Aspirin., Retrieved from:

http://www.odinity.com/characterization-of-aspirin/

Roig, I. (2014). Synthesis of Aspirin.

Kotak, U., Prajapati, V., Solanki, H., Jani, G., & Jha, P. (2015). Co-crystallization technique its rationale and recent progress. World J Pharm Pharm Sci, 4(4), 1484-508.

Moerk Nielsen, N., & Bundgaard, H. (1989). Evaluation of glycolamide esters and various other esters of aspirin as true aspirin prodrugs. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 32(3), 727-734.

Why is Sulphuric acid used in the synthesis of aspirin? Retrieved from:

https://www.thestudentroom.co.uk/showthread.php?t=2188742

Using Recrystallisation Improve The Purity Of Aspirin Biology Essay., Retrieved from:

https://www.ukessays.com/essays/biology/using-recrystallisation-improve-the-purity-of-aspirin-biology-essay.php

 

 

 

Appendix I

 

Apparatus used in the synthesis of Aspirin:

· Dry pear shaped flask

· Iced bath

· Filter Paper

· Weigh Boat

· powder funnel

· beaker

· Buchner funnel

For re-crystallization procedure purify the Aspirin:

· 250 mL beaker

· watch glass

· Matches

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix II

 

Reagents used in the synthesis of Aspirin:

Salicylic Acid:

Image result for Salicylic Acid

Ethanoic Anhydride:

Image result for Ethanoic Anhydride

Catalyst:

Sulfuric acid:

Image result for Sulfuric acid

Yield(in Y axis) vs temperature(in x axis) for Mech 1

Yield 50 60 70 80 90 2.0260000000000002 2.0042 2.0027999999999997 2.0032000000000001 2.0029999999999997

 

 

 

Yield(in Y) vs temperature(in x) for Mech 2

Yield 90 80 70 60 50 2.0009999999999999 2.0016666666666669 2.0046666666666666 2.0046666666666666 2.0026666666666664

 

 

 

Purity(in Y) vs temperature(in X) for Mech 2

Purity 90 80 70 60 50 1.8833333333333335 1.8676666666666666 1.921 1.8666666666666665 1.8826666666666665

 

 

 

Purity(in Y axis) vs temperature(in x axis) for Mech 1

Purity 50 60 70 80 90 1.9064000000000001 1.8211999999999999 1.8344 1.8475999999999999 1.8283999999999998

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