## Which method(s) can be done without using any time-domain functions in the process?

We have studied six methods for approximating an analog filter by an IIR digital filter.  Impulse Invariant, Step Invariant, Finite Difference, Matched-z, Direct Substitution and Bilinear

(a) Which method(s) can be done without using any time-domain functions in the process?

(b) Which method(s) squeeze(s) the entire continuous-time frequency  from zero to infinity into the discrete-time radian-frequency range zero to π.

(c) Which two methods are almost the same, differing only by a time-domain delay?

(d) Which method can design an unstable digital filter while trying to approximate a stable analog filter and, if constrained to only stable designs, restricts the flexibility of the design to only certain types of filters?

### Calculate the maximum achievable bridge out-of-balance voltage for an applied torque T of 103 N m given the following

Four strain gauges, with specification given below, are available to measure the torque on a cylindrical shaft 4 cm in diameter connecting a motor and load. (a) Draw clearly labelled….

### Find the gain and phase characteristics of the maintaining amplifier.

A solid-state capacitive humidity sensor has a capacitance given by: C = 1.7 RH + 365pF where RH is the percentage relative humidity. The sensor has an associated parallel resistance….

### calculate the mean velocity of the gas at maximum flow rate

A pitot tube is used to measure the mean velocity of high pressure gas in a 0.15 m diameter pipe. At maximum flow rate the mean pitot differential pressure is….