The microbiota regulate neuronal functiona and fear extinction learning

1. antibiotic-treated (ABX) and germ-free (GF) mice had disrupted extinction learning. Explain how extinction learning is relevant to mental illness
2. describe some of the ways in which the gastrointestinal (GI) system and GI microbiota can affect brain function
3. describe the evidence for the involvement of the infralimbic (IL) cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) on extinction learning
4. describe the evidence for the involvement of dendritic spine remodelling in learning

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Define the biological effects of the following types in the context of substance use disorder treatment

1. Define the biological effects of the following types in the context of substance use disorder treatment a. Pharmacology, b. Neurology, c. Physiology: and d. Psychology: and describe common pharmacological and physiological effect of….

 List and describe 3 major functions of the skeletal system?

 List and describe 3 major functions of the skeletal system? · Compare and contrast compact and spongy bone? · Describe the effect exercise has on bone tissue? · During the….

List and describe 3 major functions of the skeletal system?

· List and describe 3 major functions of the skeletal system? · Compare and contrast compact and spongy bone? · Describe the effect exercise has on bone tissue? · During….