Identify the line numbers for categories of the following

Below are published paraphrases of teachers’ beliefs about

kindergarten readiness and practices (Smith & Shepard,

1988, pp. 316–319). Identify the line numbers for categories of the following:

• Beliefs about child development

• Beliefs about the possibility of catching up

• Beliefs about the possibilities of influencing a child’s

preparation for school

• Beliefs about what teachers can do

Also list any other categories you see in the data.

Mrs. Willis:

1. “Because development constitutes physiological unfolding, rates of

2. development are smooth, continuous, with no spurts

or discontinuities. The

3. child who is 6 months behind in September will be

6 months behind in

4. June. . . . There is little likelihood that a child who

is developmentally behind

5. his agemates would close the gap that separates

them. . . . Intervention is

6. futile with a developmentally unready child. Extra

help or remediation

7. causes pressure, frustration and compensation. Teachers

cannot influence

8. psychomotor abilities, ability to attend, social maturity,

and so

9. forth. . . . Teachers can provide the child with more

time to mature; place the

10. child in developmental kindergarten or preschool,

send him home another

11. year; place the child in a slow group in class; reduce

instruction below [the]

12. frustration level, lower expectations, boost self-concept,


13. manipulatives; retain in kindergarten; providing academic assistance is

14. irrelevant and harmful.”

Miss Johnson:

15. “Within broad limits of chronological age, children’s

readiness is a

16. function of their experience, learning program, and

environment. . . . A child

17. who is less prepared than his peers can close the gap

given the right

18. educational circumstances; academic assistance is

required. . . . The teacher

19. can make a difference, as can the parent and other

aspects of [the] environment;

20. within a broad range of pupil abilities, what the pupil

learns is largely a

21. function of opportunities and experiences. . . . The

teacher can provide

22. additional academic help; accommodate differences

in achievement; hold high

23. expectations, reinforce and train; work hard and

encourage the pupil to work

24. hard.”

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