Describe the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment.

Cooper, J.0., Heron, T.E., and Heward, W.L. (2019).Applied Behavior Analysis– 3rd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Chapter 11:

  1. What are the necessary conditions for reinforcement?
  2. What are the advantages of positive reinforcement?
  3. Describe differential reinforcement.
  4. Name all the different types of reinforcers and how they acquire their reinforcing properties.
  5. Describe deprivation and satiation.
  6. Describe the different procedures for selecting potential reinforcers.
  7. Describe each of the 6 factors in the current environment that influence the effectiveness of reinforcement (and, how do they?).
  8. When you are first setting up a behavior change plan, how do you determine when to reinforce (how much of the behavior is required?).
  9. And when the behavior is established, how often should you reinforce?
  10. Explain the Premack principle.

Chapter 12:

  1. Explain what is meant by stimuluspresentationversus stimulustermination. Give examples from real life.
  2. Provide the technical definition of negative reinforcement. If given examples, be able to correctly identify those examples that illustrate negative reinforcement. Be able to put the definition “in your own words.”
  3. Explain fully the difference between positive and negative reinforcement, making sure you focus on the key distinction of the difference.
  4. Describe the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment. How do they operate differently, and what is the effect of each on behavior? What is common between these operations? Explain why negative reinforcement and punishment do not refer to “good” or “bad” or other moral concepts.
  5. How does anescape contingencyrelate to the concept of negative reinforcement? Give a real-life example.
  6. How does anavoidance contingencyrelate to the concept of negative reinforcement? Give a real-life example.
  7. Define, discriminate between, and give examples ofunconditionedandconditionednegative reinforcers.
  8. Define and discriminate betweensocialandautomaticnegative reinforcement. What is the critical difference between these two?
  9. Describe the factors that influence the effectiveness of negative reinforcement. Give real-life examples of applications of each.
  10. Summarize the ethical concerns about using negative reinforcement.
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