In this chapter we focused on how population geneticists study changes in allele frequency in population gene pools over time, the nature and amount of genetic diversity in populations, and patterns of distribution of different genotypes. At the same time, we found many opportunities to consider the methods and reasoning by which much of their understanding was acquired. From the explanations given in the chapter, what answers would you propose to the following fundamental questions:
(a) How do geneticists detect the presence of different alleles in a population? How are different genotypes identified?
(b) Are differences in morphological phenotype (the physical appearance of an individual) the only way that genetically distinct individuals in a population can be identified?