Daily Archives: November 20, 2020

which statement will read the file into memory?

A.Opening a file in read mode performs which operation?

 

a. Creates a new file                        b. Reads consecutive characters from a file

c. Reads all the content of a file     d. None of the above

B.  If we have to open a fi le abc.txt using the statement

Fp1 = open(‘abc.txt’,’r’)

which statement will read the file into memory?

a. Fp2 = open(Fp1)      b. FP1.Open.read(Fp1)

c. Fp1.read()                d. None of the above

C. The inbuilt method readlines() is used to:

a. Read an entire file as a string                       b. Read one line at a time

c. Read each line in a file as an item in a list    d. None of the above

D.  If the statement Fp1 = open(‘demo.txt’,’r’) is used to open a fi le demo.txt….

If so, how do you think these goals will provide direction for school boards, curriculum developers, and teachers?

Select one national goal and visit your state department of education website (see www.nasbe.org; click on “Links” and then on ”State Education Agencies”). How does your state education agency address this goal? Click on “school boards” or “school districts” and select one or two local school districts in which you are particularly interested. How do they address this goal? In general, what references do you see to the national goals at the state board and local district websites? Are other goals evident? If so, how do you think these goals will provide direction for school boards, curriculum developers, and teachers?

Define the characteristics of a rhetorical analysis.

Focusing Your LearningLesson Objectives

By the end of this lesson, you should be able to:

Define the characteristics of a rhetorical analysis. Examine sample rhetorical analysis essays. Demonstrate the use of the writing process to develop a rhetorical analysis essay.

This lesson maps to the following course competencies:

Write for specific rhetorical contexts, including circumstance, purpose, topic, audience and writer, as well as the writing’s ethical, political, and cultural implications. Organize writing to support a central idea through unity, coherence, and logical development appropriate to a specific writing context. Use appropriate conventions in writing, including consistent voice, tone, diction, grammar, and mechanics. Find, evaluate, select, and synthesize both online and print sources that examine a topic from multiple perspectives. Integrate sources through summarizing, paraphrasing, and quotation from sources….

Comment on what these successive R2 values suggest about goodness‐of‐ fit for each addition to the simple model.

Researchers suggested that the value of the carbon isotope δ13C in human serum might reflect dietary consumption of corn‐based and cane‐based sweeteners. This might then offer a measure that objectively reflects intake of sweets and could thus replace unreliable self‐reported dietary assessments. They investigated this possibility among a sample of 186 participants by using a linear regression model with the level of δ13C in serum as the outcome variable and the level of the consumption of sweetened drinks (estimated number of cans consumed per day) as the covariate. They then successively added to the basic model: first, corn consumption then male gender and then consumption of animal fat (% total calories/day). For each model, they measured R2 (described in output as “Adjusted r‐squared value”). The results are shown….

Calculate [1 − p(Y =1)] in each case, and hence calculate the odds ratio for a malignant diagnosis in women aged 45 compared to women aged 50.

If we use Minitab to regress Diagnosis against Age for the data in Figure 1.7 we get the output shown in Figure 23.6.

(a) Is age significant?

(b) Use the Minitab values to write down the estimated logistic regression model.

(c) Calculate the probability that the diagnosis will be malignant, that is, p(Y =1), for women aged:

(i) 45 and            (ii) 50.

(d) Calculate [1 − p(Y =1)] in each case, and hence calculate the odds ratio for a malignant diagnosis in women aged 45 compared to women aged 50. Explain your result.

(e) Confirm that the antiloge of the coefficient on Age is equal to the odds ratio.

(f) What effect does an increase in Age of 10 years have on the odds ratio?

Do you think the results might have been different with a larger sample?

Researchers used a prospective cohort study to assess the validity and reliability of the Patient Centered Assessment Method (PCAM), a measure for evaluating patient complexity

They used negative binomial regression with LOS (length of stay in number of days) as the outcome variable, and PCAM as the principal covariate, while also controlling for age and gender. Figure 24.8 contains the results of this regression in the simplest of their models. What do you make of the influence of the three covariates on LOS? Sample size n = 201. Do you think the results might have been different with a larger sample?

What does the log‐rank test indicate about the comparable survival experience of the women with shorter and longer cervixes?

In women with a multiple pregnancy, spontaneous pre‐term delivery is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Interventions to reduce pre‐term birth in these women have not been successful (at the time of writing). The Kaplan– Meier curves in Figure 25.9 are from a randomised controlled trial to assess whether a cervical pessary could effectively prevent poor perinatal outcomes. The women, with a multiple pregnancy between 12 and 20weeks’ gestation, were randomly assigned to pessary or control groups. The top curves are for women with a cervical length of less than 38mm, the bottom curves for women with a cervical length of at least 38mm. What does the log‐rank test indicate about the comparable survival experience of the women with shorter and longer cervixes?

Outline the problem with heterogeneity among samples in a meta‐ analysis.

(a) Outline the problem with heterogeneity among samples in a meta‐ analysis.

(b) Figure 26.7 is from a study comparing the OR for births by Caesarean section to women with private health insurance and to women with public health insurance. The authors wondered whether or not financial incentives associated with private insurance may encourage health care providers to perform more Caesarean sections. Do you think there is evidence of heterogeneity in the forest plot of Figure 26.7?

(c) What do you conclude from the results of the meta‐analysis?

What is the sensitivity and specificity of the test, if the cut‐off value is (a) 12μg/l and (b) 8μg/l?

In a four‐week period, 28 patients arrive at an emergency department with chest pain. Each has their serum CK‐BB (μg/l) level measured as a diagnostic test for a possible AMI. Twenty of these individuals are in fact experiencing an AMI but eight are not (although the clinicians do not know who is and who is not). As an indicator of probable AMI, the clinicians decide to use as a cut‐off, a particular value of serum CK‐BB. Above this cut‐off, the individual concerned is judged likely to be experiencing an AMI and will be treated accordingly, and below this value, they are not. The levels of serum CK‐BB among the 28 individuals are shown in Figure 27.2. What is the sensitivity and specificity of the test, if the cut‐off….

What is the probability that52% or less of these companies outsourced some part of their manufacturing process in the past two to three year

In an effort to cut costs and improve profits, many U.S. companies have been turning to outsourcing. In fact, according toPurchasing magazine, 54% of companies surveyed outsourced some part of their manufacturing process in the past two to three years. Suppose560 of these companies are contacted.Appendix A Statistical Tables a. What is the probability that335 or more companies outsourced some part of their manufacturing process in the past two to three years? b. What is the probability that286 or more companies outsourced some part of their manufacturing process in the past two to three years? c. What is the probability that52% or less of these companies outsourced some part of their manufacturing process in the past two to three years?