Using the following proposition as a conclusion, “Tofu is delicious,” construct two arguments:

Comprehension Questions

a. What does the word “valid” mean?      b. If an argument is valid, must its premises be true? Using the concepts discussed in this chapter, explain your answer. Give an example.      c. If an argument has false premises, must it be invalid? If not, give an example?

Using the following proposition as a conclusion, “Tofu is delicious,” construct two arguments:

a.       One that is valid and has two false premises             b. One that is invalid with two true premises

Using the validity test, assess whether each of these arguments is valid.

a. Cats are warm-blooded and warm-blooded animals are mammals, so cats are mammals.

b. The table is blue, so it is colored.

c. The War of Independence was a revolution, and revolutions are morally wrong, so the War of Independence was morally wrong.

d. If a plant dries out it will die. This plant is all dried out. So it will die.

e. I should make dinner. It is my turn and my wife and I take turns.

f. The cat is asleep. Cats always dream when they are asleep, so he is dreaming now. g. 2 + 2 = 4 and 4 + 4 = 8, so 2 + 2 + 4 = 8.

h. Lying to someone is like robbing them of the truth, and robbing is wrong, so lying is wrong too.

i. The movie was terrible. It was too long and the theatre was way too overcrowded.

j. Running helps to build cardiovascular strength and can extend your life. Anything that has these effects is good for you, so running is good for you.

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You will develop a clear and well-articulated personal philosophy statement on teaching and learning which will be the foundation for all of your teaching practices

Assessment 1: Personal Philosophy Statement 1800 words 30% You will develop a clear and well-articulated personal philosophy statement on teaching and learning which will be the foundation for all of….

What is the difference between acceptable reasons and sufficient reasons? Give an example of reasons that are sufficient to believe something but not acceptable.

What is the difference between acceptable reasons and sufficient reasons? Give an example of reasons that are sufficient to believe something but not acceptable. Could evidence be overridden without being….

In each of the following, several epistemic reasons are given to believe something. Which is the strongest reason? What makes it stronger? a. John, Susan, and Terry all believe that the bank robber was a male. John was there during the robbery and saw the robber. Susan read about the robbery in the newspaper. Susan told Terry about the robbery. b. John and Susan both believe that the acid caused the chemical reaction. John read in a textbook about the likely causes of such a reaction. Susan performed several experiments to rule out other possible causes. c. Susan and Terry both believe that their checking accounts are overdrawn. Terry got a phone call from his bank telling him about his balance. Susan noticed it when she was balancing her checkbook last night. d. John and Susan believe that some early settlers in New England suffered real hardships. John read some original diaries written by early settlers. Susan saw a documentary on TV. e. John and Susan both believe that building a new bridge will greatly reduce the current traffic problems. John based his belief on a comparison of the proposed bridge and the traffic problems to those in other cities. Susan believes it because she heard the city planners claim that the bridge would reduce traffic problems. f. John and Susan both believe that raising the minimum wage would lead to higher unemployment among the very poor. John believes it because he thinks that it follows from what he learned in his economics class. Susan believes it because she works in an unemployment office and has seen the unemployment lines grow after the wage has been raised in the past. In (a) in (C), if the belief had been that the robber was a male with a long criminal record, then Susan’s belief would have been better justified than John’s, since it is hard to tell just by looking whether someone has a criminal record, but this is the kind of information a newspaper report would get right. For each of the other questions in (C), change the shared belief but not the kind of evidence each character relied on, so that the other person’s reasons are stronger.

In each of the following, several epistemic reasons are given to believe something. Which is the strongest reason? What makes it stronger? a. John, Susan, and Terry all believe that….