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The format is based on the format used in scientific journal articles where papers have an

introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion. It should be written in 12-point

font (Arial, Helvetica or Calibri), double-spaced and formatted using the APA style for in text

citations and references cited.

• Scientific papers are written in the third person.

o Avoid the use of first person: I, us, we, etc.

• Avoid direct quotes; rather paraphrase

o Inclusion of direct quotes will result in a point deduction.

• Include page numbers on all pages except the title page. The Introduction begins

with page 2. The References Cited page has a page number on it by is on its

own page.

• Include a running head (described below).


Direct quotes are rarely used in scientific writing. This means you must PARAPHRASE (rewrite

the information in your own words). Please consider seeking help at the Writing Center if you

need help with choosing sources, paraphrasing, use of in-text citations, or any other aspect of

writing. The only time direct quotes are used in scientific writing is when changing the quote

would change the meaning of the author’s words. In scientific writing there is a fair amount of

shared language. For example, how many ways can one describe, “add 500 microliters to the

reaction tube?” or “the sample dialyzed for 30 minutes.” Please be sure to include an in-text

citation and reference for all materials that you have to look up. When in doubt, include an intext

citation and reference on the References Cited page.





• Title page

• Introduction

• (Overview of) Material and methods

• Results

• Discussion

• References cited

All sections should be labeled with their section (e.g. INTRODUCTION, RESULTS) except for the

title page. Each section will be described below:


The Title page is on separate page from the Introduction. Type your title in upper and

lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page.

• Title should be centered and in the upper half of the page as

Title here in sentence case

For example,

The effects of body position on electrocardiogram

• The following information should be centered and in the bottom half of the page:

Your name

Date (the due date)

Professor’s name name

Course name/Semester

The title page should also contain a running head (abbreviated title). It is typed in upper case

letters and is located in the top header section of the page, aligned to the right side of the

paper. On the title page include the words, Running head: TITLE OF PAPER. Thereafter don’t

repeat the words Running head; just the running head in all caps. Please note that on the title

page, your page header/running head should look like this:


Pages after the title page should have a running head that looks like this:


APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not

contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines.

All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.


• Briefly introduce the subject of physiology.

• Explain the significance of this project for you as a physiology student.

• Provides sufficient background, leading to main objectives and hypothesis/hypotheses.


• This section should NOT be a detailed narrative of every step in your experimental

process but rather an overview of the general materials and methods. Reference the specific Lab Exercise and provide an overview of the experiment. Professor Thomford is the author of the Lab Exercises. For example:

A solution of 0.5% starch, 10% glucose and 1.5% protein was placed inside a dialysis bag. The bag was placed in a dish of Lugol’s iodine (0.4% Iodine potassium iodide) solution for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes, the contents of the dialysis bag and the solution (environment) were observed for color changes (Lab exercise #, Author last name, year). A change in color to blue in the dialysis bag indicates that the Lugol’s iodine

solution for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes, the contents of the dialysis bag and the solution (environment) were observed for color changes (Lab exercise #, Author last name, year). A change in color to blue in the dialysis bag indicates that the Lugol’s iodine penetrated the dialysis bag and reacted with glucose. It shows the presence

of glucose in a solution. The negative control for the experiment was a dialysis bag

filed with 0.5% starch and 1.5% protein, and the positive control was a bag filed with

0.5% starch, 10% glucose and 1.5% protein. The experimental and control samples

were tested under the same conditions. …

• Summarize the purpose of the test, how it was done, and what a positive and negative

control result should look like. Reference the appropriate Lab Exercise, include in-text

citation(s) and reference(s) on References Cited page.


• In paragraph format, describe your results.

• Don’t interpret results; just state them.

• Include results for positive and negative controls.

• In addition to the written description of your results, present your data in table and

graph format.

o Tables: Include a descriptive title centered over the top of the table.

o Figures (this includes graphs): should have a title and figure caption below the

figure. The figure caption should very succinctly describe the results. Include a

legend if necessary (blue = group 1, red = group 2,..)


The Discussion section is used to explain and describe the results (in this order please):

• The main goal of this experiment is to….

• All the key results and steps used in your experiment should be included.

• Next discuss the relevance of the experiment performed to an aspect of physiology. For

example, relate the dialysis experiment (Lab 2) to digestion or exchange in the kidneys.

• Follow the APA formatting for in text citations and the works cited page. See below.


• Provide the complete in text citation and works cited for all sources referenced in the

paper in APA format. This includes the in text citations and references cited page at the

end of your report.

• References should appear in alphabetical order by the first author’s last name.

• Provide a reference for all facts discussed in the introduction, methods and discussion.

• Include reference to the appropriate Lab Exercise.


When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the

author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for

example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end

of the paper.

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