In what two ways can joints be classified?

The Skeletal System

 

Pre-Lab Questions

List the functions of the skeletal system.

What material contributes the most to the compressive strength of bone?

Briefly describe the process of bone remodeling.

Research Wolff’s Law. How does the formation of torus mandibularis relate to this theory?

Given your understanding of Wolff’s Law, what mechanical consideration would be important when designing a bioreactor for osteocyte growth ex vivo?

 

Experiment 1: Classification of Bones

Data Tables

Table 6: Classification of Numbered Bones

Bone Name Classification by Shape Classification by Location
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

 

Post-Lab Questions

1. Why is it important to classify bones?

Aside from length, what are some other common characteristics of a long bone? Are long bones typically associated with the axial or appendicular skeleton?

Compare and contrast flat bones and long bones.

 

Experiment 2: Digital Slide Image Examination – Bone

Post-Lab Questions

1. Identify the indicated components in the slide image.

 

A_________________

 

B_________________

 

C_________________

 

D_________________

 

Identify the indicated components in the slide image.

 

A_________________

 

B_________________

 

Compare and contrast the structures of cortical bone and trabecular bone.

What is the purpose of cortical bone and trabecular bone?

What are trabeculae? What is their function?

What are Haversian systems? What is their function?

 

Experiment 3: Owl Pellet Dissection

Data Tables

Table 7: Owl Pellet Observations

Pellet Characteristics Observations
Pellet Length (cm)  
Pellet Width (cm)  
Physical Observations  

 

Table 8: Animal Bone Observations

Bone Animal Source Number of Bones
Skull    
Jaw    
Scapula    
Rib    
Vertebrae    
Hindlimb    
Forelimb    
Pelvic bone    

 

Post-Lab Questions

1. What types of bones did you recover from the pellet?

Compare the bones you dissected in the owl pellet to human bones. Which bones are similar, which are different, and why?

How can scientists use owl pellets to study the skeletal systems of small mammals in a specific ecosystem?

In addition to owls, other birds of prey produce pellets. The contents of these pellets are dictated by where the bird lives. What would you expect to find in a pellet from a shorebird, such as a gull?

 

Experiment 4: Effects of Acid on Bone

Data Tables

Table 9: Effect on Pellet Bones

Beaker Observations
Water  
Vinegar  

 

Post-Lab Questions

1. Which group of bones is more flexible? Why is this so?

What was damaged in the bones placed in vinegar?

How might the experiment results vary if the same procedure was performed using bones that had not been regurgitated in an owl pellet (such as raw chicken bones)?

Some people suffer from a disease called rickets, in which their bones have not been adequately calcified. Which group of bones is most similar to that of a patient with rickets? Why?

Experiment 5: Physical Skeleton – The Axial Skeleton

Data Tables

Table 15: Cervical Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature Observations
Size of cervical vertebrae in comparison to those of the thoracic and lumbar region  
Shape of the vertebral foramen  
Spinous process of the C3 – C6

vertebrae

 
Spinous process of the C7 vertebra  

 

Table 16: Thoracic Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature Observations
Size and weight of the thoracic vertebrae in comparison to those of the cervical and lumbar region  
Shape of the vertebral body  
Appearance and projection direction of the spinous process  

 

Table 17: Lumbar Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature Observations
Size of the lumbar vertebrae in comparison to those of the cervical and thoracic region  
Shape of the vertebral body  
Appearance and projection direction of the spinous process  

 

 

Table 18: Rib Feature Observations

Rib Feature Observations
Length of ribs 1 – 7 (do they increase or decrease in length?)  
Length of ribs 8 – 12 (do they increase or decrease in length?)  
Articulation of the ribs and thoracic vertebrae (notice the specific rib and vertebra that articulate)  

 

Post-Lab Questions

1. What are the three components of the axial skeleton? Describe the function of each.

Identify the labeled components on the skull below.

 

A ________________

 

B ________________

 

C ________________

 

D ________________

 

E ________________

 

F ________________

 

Indicate whether the following bones are cranial or facial bones, and give their location.

Bone Facial or Cranial Location
Temporal Bones  
Mandible  
Vomer  
Zygomatic Bones  
Parietal Bones  
Ethmoid Bone  
Sphenoid Bone  
Lacrimal Bones  

 

What are the three regions of the vertebral column? Describe the general shape and size of the vertebrae in each region.

What are the atlas and axis? What are their functions?

Identify the vertebral structures on the images below.

 

A ________________

 

B ________________

 

C ________________

 

D ________________

 

E ________________

 

What is the purpose of the thoracic cage?

Describe the three components of the sternum.

Describe the difference between true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs.

Experiment 6: Virtual Model – The Axial Skeleton

Post-Lab Questions

1. What features are located inferior to the cranium and superior to the mandible? Identify the category here. How many individual items are included in this category? (Hint: the answer is not a bone.)

Why aren’t teeth considered bones?

Identify the two major bones that comprise the head.

To what bones does the right scapula attach?

Is the left clavicle superior or inferior to the right scapula?

 

Experiment 7: Physical Skeleton – The Appendicular Skeleton

Post-Lab Questions

1. What are the four parts of the upper extremity and the lower extremity of the appendicular skeleton?

Compare and contrast the size and function of the upper and lower extremities of the appendicular skeleton.

What are the three fused bones that make up the coxae of the pelvic girdle? What is their location in relationship to one another?

 

Experiment 8: Virtual Model – The Appendicular Skeleton

Post-Lab Questions

1. How many left metatarsals are there?

Is the right fibula inferior or superior to the patella?

Which is more proximal to the body: the lunate bone or the medial epicondyle?

Which two bones attach to the patella?

Identify the two bones that comprise the leg.

 

Experiment 9: Articulations

Post-Lab Questions

1. In what two ways can joints be classified? What are the three classifications of each type?

Fibrous joints are either sutures or syndesmoses. What is the difference between the two? Give examples of each type.

Symphyses and synchondroses are two classifications of what type of joint? What are the differences between the two classifications?

What allows synovial joints to be diarthrotic?

Fill in the table below:

Joint Articulating Bones Type of Synovial Joint Movement
Elbow      
Knee      
Hip      
Ankle      
Wrist    
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