Polyolefins such as polyethylene undergo slow degradation when placed in air. Degradation occurs by reactions with atmospheric oxygen that lead to the formation of carbonyl groups (groups containing oxygen), gradual….
In 2009–10, Jim, aged 66, has an income of £11,000 made up of a state pension of £5,000 and savings income of £6,000.
In 2009–10, Jim, aged 66, has an income of £11,000 made up of a state pension of £5,000 and savings income of £6,000. None of his spending qualifies for tax relief, but he gets a personal allowance of £9,490. The personal allowance is set first against his state pension (which counts as ‘other income’). The remaining £4,490 of allowance is deducted from his savings income, leaving £1,510. There is no ‘other income’ left to use up any of the starting rate band, which can be set against the £1,510 of savings income which is, therefore, taxed at 10 per cent. Jim pays total tax of 10% × £1,510 = £151.
Ling, 52, has a part-time job and earns £10,000 a year. She also has £1,000 savings income. Her personal allowance of £6,475 is completely used up against her earnings (which count as ‘other income’). So too is her starting-rate band which carries a tax rate of 20 per cent when used against ‘other income’. The remaining £1,085 of earnings and her £1,000 savings income both fall within the basic-rate band and are taxed at 20 per cent. Her total tax bill is 20% × (£2,440 + £1,085 + £1,000) = £905.