As noted in Fig. 7.16, the state of stress shifts from plane stress to plane strain as the ratio of length-of-bend to sheet thickness increases. Explain why. This situation….
How much final energy are you saving?
1. You are in an area where electricity is predominantly produced from natural gas. Extracting and transporting natural gas has losses of 5 percent, the gas-fired power plant has an efficiency of 45 percent, and the losses of in the electrical infrastructure are 2 percent for AC/DC conversion, 7 percent in transmission and distribution, and 3 percent in wiring. Suppose you upgrade your refrigerator from an 18–cubic foot unit that uses 500 kWh per year to a larger 25–cubic foot unit that uses 350 kWh per year. How much final energy are you saving? How much primary energy?