Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are believed to constitute about 8% of the human genome

. A recent study by Chuong et al. (Science, 2016, 351:1083-7) demonstrated that deletion of some of these ERV elements in human cells hinders the expression of adjacent interferon-induced genes. Viral challenge of cells lacking some of these elements resulted in weaker innate immune responses.

  1. Discuss and elaborate on human ERV (HERV) elements in the human genome. Include their source, reported potential biological roles as well as disease associations. (35 pts)

 

  1. Based on the current literature on HERVs, devise a hypothesis regarding their role in the adaptive immune response to viral infections. (20 pts)

 

  1. Design a set of experiments to test your model. What particular results would you expect? Present hypothetical data that support your hypothesis (figures, tables, etc.) What potential experimental problems may be encountered and what alternate methods or experimental designs can be used to overcome them? (45 pts)
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Define the biological effects of the following types in the context of substance use disorder treatment

1. Define the biological effects of the following types in the context of substance use disorder treatment a. Pharmacology, b. Neurology, c. Physiology: and d. Psychology: and describe common pharmacological and physiological effect of….

 List and describe 3 major functions of the skeletal system?

 List and describe 3 major functions of the skeletal system? · Compare and contrast compact and spongy bone? · Describe the effect exercise has on bone tissue? · During the….

List and describe 3 major functions of the skeletal system?

· List and describe 3 major functions of the skeletal system? · Compare and contrast compact and spongy bone? · Describe the effect exercise has on bone tissue? · During….