Development of similar cultural adaptations to similar cultural environments by different peoples with different ancestral cultures can be defined as what?

QUESTION 1

1. ______________________________ is the study of the relationship between language and society in that it examines how social categories such as age, gender, ethnicity, religion, occupation and class influence the use and significance of distinctive styles of speech.

  a. linguistics
  b. ethnolinguistics
  c. historical linguistics
  d. sociolinguistics

0.25 points   

QUESTION 2

1. According to Richard Borshay Lee, the key to successful subsistence among hunters and gathers such as the !Kung is

  a. band loyalty and membership stability
  b. dietary selectivity
  c. adequate defense from other hunting and gathering groups
  d. the availability of and dependency on a wide variety of a diet of edible plants, nuts, berries in addition to sources of protein such as small game

0.25 points   

QUESTION 3

1. What cultural  anthropologist developed a concept of globalization that is comprised of five “scapes” : ethnoscapes, ideoscapes, media scapes, technoscapes and financescapes which illustrate the interaction of homogeneity and heterogeneity interacting in contemporary social encounters across international borders?

  a. Franz Boas
  b. Bronislaw Malinowski
  c. Arjun Appadurai
  d. Philippe Bourgois

0.25 points   

QUESTION 4

1. The Amish have a distinctive mode of dress. Old Order Amish have no telephones. In a modern world shaped by large social institutions, Amish are still recognized for having close-knit communities united by shared values that differ from those of the larger society. The Amish in the United States are an example of a(n)

  a. dominant culture
  b. pluralistic society
  c. subculture
  d. complex society

0.25 points   

QUESTION 5

1. Three contemporary theories of “globalization” are:

  a. Liberal, Neoliberal and Postliberal
  b. Dominant culture, subculture and counterculture
  c. Ecology, subsistence and sustainability
  d. McDonaldization, Clash of Cultures, and Hybridity

0.25 points   

QUESTION 6

1. For the most part, cuartoneros illegally harvest mahohany because

  a. the work is easy and it brings great reward for little effort
  b. the mahogany trees are easy to find in remote areas of the Chimanes forest
  c. there are few other opportunities for indigenous people to earn money or to work off debt
  d. legal logging companies are not interested in logging mahogany and so there is little competition

0.25 points   

QUESTION 7

1. What concept refers to the rules that govern the assignment of jobs to people in a society?

  a. gender
  b. class
  c. division of labor
  d. reciprocal exchange

0.25 points   

QUESTION 8

1. What does it mean to take a “holistic” perspective?

  a. To seek comparisons between cultures in order to understand what is universal in human thought and behavior
  b. To examine culture as a whole and how various parts are related, without examining behavior as if it were a biological instinct
  c. To seek interconnections and relatedness between various parts of human culture and biology
  d. To approach culture as a uniquely human practice that is the same everywhere and is thus studied as if it were a whole

0.25 points   

QUESTION 9

1. The branch of anthropology that focuses on the study of material culture through the excavation, recovery and analysis of material remains.

  a. physical anthropology
  b. cultural anthropology
  c. archaeology
  d. linguistics

0.25 points   

QUESTION 10

1. ____________________________________________________ set a new standard for fieldwork in anthropology through his research with the Trobriand people most notably in using a method of participant observation.

  a. Anthony Wallace
  b. Bronislaw Malinowski
  c. Victor Turner
  d. Claude Levi-Strauss

0.25 points   

QUESTION 11

1. What theory espoused that the structure of language determined or greatly influenced the thoughts and behaviors characteristic of individuals of a culture in which it is spoken?

  a. the Higgs-boson theory
  b. ethnoilinguistics
  c. the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
  d. sociolinguistics

0.25 points   

QUESTION 12

1. The cross-cultural study of humankind’s perception and use of space, for instance, what distances people stand from each other when greeting each other or what is appropriate behavior in public spaces is known as __________________________________.

  a. framing
  b. kinesics
  c. personal bubble
  d. proxemics

0.25 points   

QUESTION 13

1. An opulent ceremonial feast associated with North American Indian peoples of the northwest coast at which possessions are given away or destroyed in order to display wealth,  or gain status or prestige.

  a. !Xoma
  b. moka
  c. kula ring
  d. potlatch

0.25 points   

QUESTION 14

1. The rule-governed relationships that hold a society together, with all their rights, duties, and obligations, are known as its

  a. constitution
  b. laws
  c. ethnocentrism
  d. social structure

0.25 points   

QUESTION 15

1. Facial gestures, rolling the eyes, the way one dresses, the kind of car one drives are all examples of ________________________-.

  a. dominant culture
  b. non-linguistic symbols
  c. linguistic symbols
  d. extraordinary behavior

0.25 points   

QUESTION 16

1. The bThe belief that one’s own culture is superior to another is called

  a. ethnocentrism
  b. ethnology
  c. discrimination
  d. holism

0.25 points   

QUESTION 17

1. Culture that is “outside of our awareness” is called _________________________ culture.

  a. tacit
  b. explicit
  c. historical
  d. material

0.25 points   

QUESTION 18

1. A state of anxiety that stems from cross-cultural misunderstanding, or when one is in unfamiliar social territory and is disoriented or has lost all their familiar cues is known as ______________________________________.

  a. culture
  b. ethnographic present
  c. symbolic interactionism
  d. culture shock

0.25 points   

QUESTION 19

1. Which of the following is NOT a qualitative research method?

  a. participant observation
  b. manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques
  c. autoethnography
  d. interviews

0.25 points   

QUESTION 20

1. Evolutionary development that takes place simultaneously in different geographic and cultural contexts, for instance the development of farming in South West Asia and MesoAmerica, is known as?

  a. convergent evolution
  b. parallel evolution
  c. parallex evolution
  d. unilinear evolution

0.25 points   

QUESTION 21

1. A  concept of political scientist and historian Benedict Anderson that has transformed the study and understanding of nationalism.

  a. social stratification
  b. imagined community
  c. cultural ecology
  d. reciprocal exchange

0.25 points   

QUESTION 22

1. George Hicks was an anthropologist who wrote on Appalachian culture. What did he do in order to better understand the lifeways of mountain people in the Appalachian Valley?

  a. Read as many books as he could find on the geography and region.
  b. Moved his family there, enrolled his daughter in the local school system, and talked to many people who lived there as well as shopkeepers who had businesses there, and engaged in community activities
  c. Talked to someone who had written a book on Appalachian culture
  d. Married a woman from that area and got to know her family and extended kin.

0.25 points   

QUESTION 23

1. In-depth descriptive studies of specific cultures are called

  a. ethnologies
  b. ethnographies
  c. anthropologies
  d. ethnobotanies

0.25 points   

QUESTION 24

1. What is the primary purpose of practicing applied anthropology?

  a. It provides case studies to determine the accuracy of new anthropological theories
  b. It allows anthropologists to work with non-governmental agencies to establish democracy
  c. It provides students with areas where they can practice doing fieldwork
  d. It allows the use of anthropological knowledge to solve practical problems

0.25 points   

QUESTION 25

1. What term is used to understand the way people use their culture to adapt to particular environments?

  a. cultural ecology
  b. economics
  c. subsistence mode
  d. knowledge exchange

0.25 points   

QUESTION 26

1. In the essay, “Manipulating Meaning: The Military Name Game” the author notes that the U.S. military changed the name of the military operation known as “Infinite Justice”  to “Enduring Freedom”. Why?

  a. The U.S. were among the allies who won World War II and the military wanted a post-war name that reflected the hopes of a a continuing alliance
  b. German military were offended at the U.S.role in claiming victory of World War II
  c. In a post 9/11 climate, the Council on American-Islamic Relations felt it implied a godly role for the U.S. and there were concerns as to how this would play out in a frame of national and international relations
  d. U.S. troops were so successful in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War era that they wanted to extend the ideology of western ideals prevailing over Communism

0.25 points   

QUESTION 27

1. When producing services, information and research becomes more important or generates more wealth than extracting natural resources and producing or manufacturing goods.

  a. industrialism
  b. post-industrialism
  c. subsistence
  d. reciprocity

0.25 points   

QUESTION 28

1. In the essay, “Using Anthropology,” David McCurdy recounts the experiences of a new manager who uses ________________________________________ to improve service and get control of warehouse inventory.

  a. an ethnographic approach
  b. a quick survey on Survey Monkey
  c. site survey analysis
  d. Google to search “Best Business Practices”

0.25 points   

QUESTION 29

1. In “The Hunters: Scarce Resources in the Kalahari”  anthropologist Richard Borshay Lee describes the subsistence strategies of a foraging group. His work was ground-breaking in that many social scientists described hunters and gatherers as living a precarious hand-to-mouth existence while he noted that this group average how many days a week “working” to meet their basic needs?

  a. 1 day a week
  b. 4-5 days a week
  c. 6-7 days a week
  d. 2.5-3 days a week

0.25 points   

QUESTION 30

1. The type of economy that is dominated by a market economy in which goods and services are exchanged based on price, supply and demand.

  a. foraging
  b. pastoralism
  c. hunting and gathering
  d. industrialism

0.25 points   

QUESTION 31

1. In “Conversation Style: Talking on the Job”, linguist Deboran Tannen notes the significance of what in relation to ritualized conversations in the workplace?

  a. gender
  b. age
  c. class
  d. race

0.25 points   

QUESTION 32

1. When anthropologists go to the places that they study in order to experience the culture firsthand, it is called

  a. laboratory analysis
  b. fieldwork
  c. ethnology
  d. field study

0.25 points   

QUESTION 33

1. Which of the following observations did Sterk make about “gatekeepers”  in her “Fieldwork on Prostitution in an Era of Aids”?

  a. they become more important as time goes by
  b. they are not a vital part of fieldwork
  c. they are crucial to gaining initial access into a community or group
  d. they tend to be individuals who exist on the periphery of a scene

0.25 points   

QUESTION 34

1. Culture that people  are consciously aware of and can talk about is called ___________________________ culture.

  a. ideal
  b. tacit
  c. explicit
  d. real

0.25 points   

QUESTION 35

1. In the essay “The Hunters: Scarce Resources in the Kalahari”, the author claims that when he studied the !Kung in the 1960s, the !Kung

  a. ate all plants and animals in their environment
  b. lived in camps, each of which had a defended territory
  c. enjoyed a large amount of leisure time (more so than Americans, Canadians or Europeans)
  d. had to move every day in search of scarce foodstuffs

0.25 points   

QUESTION 36

1. Franz Boas stated that “the seeing eye is not a mere physical organ, but the means of perception culturally conditioned by the tradition in which the possessor has been reared..”  What core concept is Boas describing?

  a. cultural relativity
  b. cultural diversity
  c. participant observation
  d. cultural resource management

0.25 points   

QUESTION 37

1. The ability to build homes and make clothing to insulate us against cold environments is a(n):

  a. cultural adaptation
  b. physical adaptation
  c. congenital adaptation
  d. physiological adaptation

0.25 points   

QUESTION 38

1. The rules that govern the assignment of jobs to people is known as _________________________________________.

  a. unit of production
  b. division of labor
  c. industrial economy
  d. post-industrial economy

0.25 points   

QUESTION 39

1. ___________________________________ is the learned and shared knowledge that people use to generate behavior and interpret experience.

  a. speech
  b. diffusion
  c. culture
  d. cultural diversity

0.25 points   

QUESTION 40

1. In the essay “Shakespeare in the Bush,”  what concept is illustrated when anthropologist Laura Bohannon tells the story of Hamlet to a Tiv group of elders in Nigeria expecting that a such an artist as Shakespeare will translate, universally, or when the Tiv elders reinterpret the story using their own cultural conceptualizations?

  A. naive realism
  B. supernaturalism
  C. transcendentalism
  D. surrealism

0.25 points   

QUESTION 41

1. Humans’ major mode of adaptation, which enables them to live effectively in diverse environments, is

  a. education
  b. religion
  c. bureaucracy
  d. culture

0.25 points   

QUESTION 42

1. According to Crate, the author of “We are Going Underwater” which of the following was a change to which  the Sakha were forced to adapt to at the turn of the 21st century?

  a. subtle and gradual increasing changes in the cycles and patterns of weather and climate
  b. land changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union
  c. Soviet era industrialization in the form of diamond mining
  d. annexation of land by colonizers

0.25 points   

QUESTION 43

1. __________________________strategies are used by human groups to exploit their environments to meet their material necessities.

  a. class-based
  b. sustainable
  c. dominant
  d. subsistence

0.25 points   

QUESTION 44

1. In “Illegal Logging and Frontier Conservation” author Nathan Williamson argues

  a. for de-regulation of commercial logging
  b. that an international agreement is needed to control demands for tropical hardwood and policies need to include reforestation efforts
  c. leaving the economic, ecological and social spheres of people living in the forest to market forces
  d. for an Indian relocation plan

0.25 points   

QUESTION 45

1. What Swiss linguist and semiotician laid a foundation for many significant developments in linguistics and semiology in the 20th century.  Their Course in General Linguistics  in 1916 drew distinctions between language as a system of signs passed from generation to generation and everyday speech,

  a. George Hicks
  b. Deborah Tannen
  c. Ferdinand deSaussure
  d. Edward Hall

0.25 points   

QUESTION 46

1. What concept refers to  people using particular language to convey a particular point of view, for instance, political debates over “repealing” Obamacare or “repairing” Obamacare…. or “pro-life” versus “pro-choice”?

  a. metaphor
  b. code
  c. proxemics
  d. frame

0.25 points   

QUESTION 47

1. Learning when it is appropriate to cry, or what is considered food and how to best prepare it are examples of

  a. biology
  b. cultural knowledge
  c. genetic predispositions to behaviors
  d. innate traits

0.25 points   

QUESTION 48

1. What is referred to as the provision of goods and services to meet biological and social wants.

  a. division of labor
  b. economic system
  c. production
  d. allocation of resources

0.25 points   

QUESTION 49

1. The first clear and comprehensive definition of culture was made by

  a. Edward B. Tylor
  b. Margaret Mead
  c. Alfred Kroeber
  d. Franz Boas

0.25 points   

QUESTION 50

1. Anthropology is

  a. the study of the species Homo Sapiens by analysing its cultural but not biological dimensions
  b. the study of humankind everywhere throughout time
  c. the study of Western culture primarily through a study of its folklore
  d. the subjective study of humankind from the perspective of one group

0.25 points   

QUESTION 51

1. In terms of ecology and subsistence economies, some of the biggest challenges for microenvironmental groupsin the 21st century include:

  a. illegal logging, and slash and burn agriculture
  b. rhetoric and images of public figures
  c. national security and neoliberalism
  d. exploitation of lands from outsiders, overexploitation of the environment to meet market demands, and climate change

0.25 points   

QUESTION 52

1. In “Women in the Mine” author Jessica Smith Rolston discusses different types of women who go into this traditional, male-dominated environment. According to Rolston which type is most successful at working in the mine?

  a. girly-girls
  b. bitches
  c. tomboy
  d. ladies

0.25 points   

QUESTION 53

1. A theory that seeks to explain human behavior in terms of meaning, for instance, everyday behaviors on a train or how different people perceive the same incident in a community from different perspectives based previous experiences or history.

  a. conflict theory
  b. symbolic interactionism
  c. evolutionary theory
  d. theory of relativity

0.25 points   

QUESTION 54

1. The film Ancient Futures: Learning from Ladakhillustrated what particular concept(s)  discussed so far this term?

  a. the recreation of a Buddhist mandala or sand painting that illustrated a philosophical  worldview in iconic form
  b. the practice of medical pluralism shared between a Huichol shaman and a doctor trained in secular and scientific-oriented medicine
  c. the effects of modernization and development on traditional lifeways in Ladakh (or Little Tibet) when India opened its doors to tourism
  d. the reintroduction of Buddhist philosophy among Ladakhi youth who wanted to retain their cultural customs

0.25 points   

QUESTION 55

1. If an anthropologist studies religion and interviews church leaders about how they were called to their positions, attends various rites of passage, writes down impressions and beliefs of the practitioners, and uses nonstatistical descriptions of the religion as a way of presenting information, the anthropologist is employing what type of data collection?

  a. Quantitative
  b. Deductive
  c. Qualitative
  d. Conversive

0.25 points   

QUESTION 56

1. What term does anthropologist Susan Crate use in the essay “We are Going Underwater” to discuss social groups that depend on their immediate environment for both their physical and spiritual sustenance”?

  a. place-based people
  b. indigenous people
  c. shamans
  d. tribal group

0.25 points   

QUESTION 57

1. All of the following are examples of material culture except

  a. dreadlocks
  b. belief in a supreme being
  c. empty beer cans
  d. smart phones

0.25 points   

QUESTION 58

1. Selected in 1999 for preservation in the U.S. National Film Registry by the Library of Congress for being “culturally, historically and aesthetically significant”, The Land of the War Canoes was a silent film made by Edward S. Curtis in 1914 that fictionalized the construction of war canoes, ceremonial dances, artwork, and festive rituals of what social group that was undergoing significant cultural changes during that time period? (This was also the group discussed in class that Franz Boas was enchanted by and that helped him shape his ideas about cultural relativity)

  a. Ladakhi in the Himalayan region of Kashmir
  b. the Vilui Sakha of Siberia
  c. Chiumanes Indians of Bolivia
  d. Kwakiutl or Kwakwaka’wakw off the central coast of British Columbia, Canada

0.25 points   

QUESTION 59

1. In the essay, “Illegal Logging and Frontier Conservation”, the author claims that the logging policies established by the Bolivian government in the area of the Chimanes forest

  a. will adequately meet the need of the high worldwide demand of quality tropical hardwood
  b. will most probably lead to the eventual destruction of the forests
  c. will encourage small lumber mills to work only with legal logging companies in harvesting tropical hardwood
  d. are sensible and workable

0.25 points   

QUESTION 60

1. What culture does University of Pennsylvania anthropologist Philippe Bourgeois examine in the essay “Poverty at Work:  Office Employment and the Crack Alternative”?

  a. small subsistence farmers in Malawi
  b. West Philadelphia
  c. Spanish Harlem
  d. the Powder River Basin mine culture in Wyoming

0.25 points   

QUESTION 61

1. What mode of subsistence could be characterized as most egalitarian in terms of a division of labor including a gendered division of labors?

  a. post-industrialism
  b. hunting and gathering
  c. agriculture
  d. industrialism

0.25 points   

QUESTION 62

1. If a society uses irrigation, its food getting subsistence system would be best classified as:

  a. hunting and gathering
  b. pastoral
  c. hydraulic
  d. agriculture

0.25 points   

QUESTION 63

1. In “Poverty at Work: Office Environment and the Crack Alternative,” Bourgeois argues that young, uneducated Hispanic men did not succeed in a post-industrial workplace because:

  a. not enough jobs were created in New York City in the shift from an industrial economy to a post-industrial climate
  b. they were overeducated for the newer technical jobs
  c. they were lazy and afraid of hard work
  d. they had difficulty switching from street identities to professional ones, and their appearance frightened middle-class white Anglos in an office environment

0.25 points   

QUESTION 64

1. The Viliui Sakha developed a belief system that helped them to understand and interact with the extreme environment of Siberia. One example of this belief system is represented by

  a. the creation of a “mandala” that represents a Buddhist cosmology
  b.  belief that a harsh winter was really an omen sent by a witch
  c. “potlatch” ceremonies
  d. the shaman who communicates with “abaahi” or evil spirits  of the underworld in times of crisis and the Bull of Winter

0.25 points   

QUESTION 65

1. According to Lee, a !Kung hunter

  a. shares the game with his family only
  b. eats all the kill himself
  c. gives all the meat  from the animal he has killed to the person who made his arrow
  d. shares the kill with everyone in the group  and expects them to reciprocate

0.25 points   

QUESTION 66

1. _______________________________ is a philosophy adopted by capitalist countries that emphasizes the free movement of goods, capital and services with cuts to public expenditures for common goods and social services.

  a. neoliberalism
  b. epistemology
  c. materialism
  d. continental philosophy

0.25 points   

QUESTION 67

1. In “Ethnography and Culture” anthropologist James P. Spradley discusses the social theory of symbolic interactionism in cross-cultural exchanges. In this he acknowledges the contributions of what three sociologists to the understanding of this  theory?

  a. Bronislaw Malinowski, Franz Boas and Karl Marx
  b. Herbert Blumer, Charles Horton Cooley, and George Herbert Mead
  c. David W. McCurdy, Diana Shandy and James Spradley
  d. Richard Borshay Lee, Claire Sterk, and George Gmelch

0.25 points   

QUESTION 68

1. Primatology, medical anthropology and forensic anthropology are all specializations of what?,

  a. cultural anthropology
  b. archaeology
  c. physical anthropology
  d. linguistic anthropology

0.25 points   

QUESTION 69

1. In “Conversation Rituals: Talking on the Job” the author argues that in the workplace, men’s conversation is often directed at avoiding what?

  a. praising colleagues
  b. getting back to work
  c. the “one down” position
  d. giving the semblance of equal relations

0.25 points   

QUESTION 70

1. In the essay, “Eating Christmas in the Kalahari” the !Kung expressed disappointment at the ox that the author presented them because

  a. the animal came from an outsider
  b. it was a way to “cool” a potential giver’s arrogance
  c. the animal was too thin and old
  d. the tribe was afraid that he’d take the gift back

0.25 points   

QUESTION 71

1. The hallmark of ethnographic fieldwork is

  a. formal interviews
  b. fieldnotes
  c. participant observation
  d. applied anthropology

0.25 points   

QUESTION 72

1. How much of human behavior is “non-verbal”?

  a. 90%
  b. 0%…all behavior can be articulated with and through words
  c. 60%
  d. 10%

0.25 points   

QUESTION 73

1. The way the !Kung treated Richard Lee’s Christmas ox shows how much they value

  a. equality
  b. family solidarity
  c. interdependence with nature
  d. male dominance

0.25 points   

QUESTION 74

1. Which of the following is a conclusion that Sterk reached about prostitutes and prostitution in “Fieldwork on Prostitution in an Era of Aids”?

  a. first experiences as prostitutes often involve feeling alienated from people outside the life
  b. the women are readily able to leave behind that lifeway with few consequences
  c. although ther media portrays men as violent to prostitutes most are not
  d. although police and health officials insist that prostitues are drug addicts most are not

0.25 points   

QUESTION 75

1. A key idea of “Women in the Mine” is that gender is best understood as

  a. fixed notions of masculinity and femininity
  b. a matter of negotiation and performance
  c. biology as destiny
  d. an innate trait

0.25 points   

QUESTION 76

1. Development of similar cultural adaptations to similar cultural environments by different peoples with different ancestral cultures can be defined as what?

  a. convergent evolution
  b. Commanche evolution
  c. parallel evolution
  d. Asian evolution

0.25 points   

QUESTION 77

1. In general, anthropologists use qualitative research methods

  a. to present an insider’s view of a culture
  b. to maintain the highest degree of objectivity possible
  c. to generate the most truthful facts
  d. to accumulate as much data as possible in the shortest amount of time

0.25 points   

QUESTION 78

1. The socio-linguists in the film, American Tongues, discussed what two types of accents?

  a. rhythmic and non-rhythmic
  b. inner and outter
  c. “established” and “newcomer”
  d. regional and social

0.25 points   

QUESTION 79

1. According to George Gmelch’s article, “Nice Girls Don’t talk to Rastas”, Gmelch states that most of his students who do fieldwork in rural Barbadian communities fail to recognize that such communities

  a. are homogenous
  b. will be treated as outsiders by all Rastas
  c. have class-based distinctions
  d. that they will be always embraced warmly no matter how they behave

0.25 points   

QUESTION 80

1. Urban anthropology, business anthropology, economic anthropology, development anthropology, and visual anthropology are all specializations __________________________________________.

  a. cultural anthropology
  b. linguistic anthropology
  c. archaeology
  d. physical anthropology
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