Describe the difference between true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs.

EXPERIMENT 5: PHYSICAL SKELETON – THE AXIAL SKELETON

Data Tables

Table 15: Cervical Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature Observations
Size of cervical vertebrae in comparison to those of the thoracic and lumbar region  
Shape of the vertebral foramen  
Spinous process of the C3 – C6

vertebrae

 
Spinous process of the C7 vertebra  

 

Table 16: Thoracic Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature Observations
Size and weight of the thoracic vertebrae in comparison to those of the cervical and lumbar region  
Shape of the vertebral body  
Appearance and projection direction of the spinous process  

 

Table 17: Lumbar Vertebrae Observations

Vertebral Feature Observations
Size of the lumbar vertebrae in comparison to those of the cervical and thoracic region  
Shape of the vertebral body  
Appearance and projection direction of the spinous process  

 

 

Table 18: Rib Feature Observations

Rib Feature Observations
Length of ribs 1 – 7 (do they increase or decrease in length?)  
Length of ribs 8 – 12 (do they increase or decrease in length?)  
Articulation of the ribs and thoracic vertebrae (notice the specific rib and vertebra that articulate)  

 

Post-Lab Questions

1. What are the three components of the axial skeleton? Describe the function of each.

2. Identify the labeled components on the skull below.

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A ________________

B ________________

C ________________

D ________________

E ________________

F ________________

 

3. Indicate whether the following bones are cranial or facial bones, and give their location.

Bone Facial or Cranial Location
Temporal Bones  
Mandible  
Vomer  
Zygomatic Bones  
Parietal Bones  
Ethmoid Bone  
Sphenoid Bone  
Lacrimal Bones  

 

4. What are the three regions of the vertebral column? Describe the general shape and size of the vertebrae in each region.

5. What are the atlas and axis? What are their functions?

6. Identify the vertebral structures on the images below.

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A ________________

B ________________

C ________________

D ________________

E ________________

 

7. What is the purpose of the thoracic cage?

8. Describe the three components of the sternum.

9. Describe the difference between true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs.

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