As noted in Fig. 7.16, the state of stress shifts from plane stress to plane strain as the ratio of length-of-bend to sheet thickness increases. Explain why. This situation….
Derive an expression for the trapezoidal formula for volumes.
A. Which one of the following is measured by the area between the balancing line and
the mass haul curve?
(a) Haul between the balancing points
(b) Earthwork accumulated upto that point
(c) Excess of excavation
(d) Excess of filling
B. Prismoidal formula yields better results when
(a) there is a large difference between the two end areas of a prismoid
(b) the cross sections are spaced closely
(c) the surface irregularities have been measured in the field
(d) all of the above
C. Define the following:
prism, prismoid, grade elevation, haulage.
D. Distinguish between the following pairs of terms:
(a) Overhaul and free haul (b) Over break and under break
(c) Shrinkage and swell
E. Define a prismoid. Derive the prismoidal formula and state its validity.
F. Derive an expression for the trapezoidal formula for volumes.