Comparison of Catalysts for a Simple Alkylation Unit Operation

In this project, you are required to work in a group of 4 students to
1. Undertake a literature web search on any existing refinery and provide
a) Composition of its normal crude feedstock and other property data relevant to
the refinery operation (eg. distillation curves, etc.)
b) A process flow scheme and description
c) Any unique features of that refinery and why?
2. Identify the feedstock composition to the alkylation unit of the refinery
a) The composition of the feeding stream from FCC
b) Any other feeding streams (eg. From steam coker or hydrocracker) and their
compositions
c) Mass balance calculations for a and b above the combined feedstock
composition fed into the alkylation unit
3. Identify the yield and composition of all streams from alkylation unit
a) What is the catalyst (HF or H2
SO4
or others) used?
b) How many streams exiting the alkylation unit are there?
c) What is the acid to hydrocarbon ratio?
4. Describe the reaction mechanisms occurring in the alkylation unit
a) List and describe at least 5 reactions that are occurring during each of (i)
initiation, (ii) propagation, (iii) isomerisation, (iv) polymerization, (v) crackingdisproportionation
and (vi) hydrogen transfer reactions
b) What is the I/O ratio and what is its role?
c) What are the ASO content in the exiting stream of acid regeneration, the rate of
acid recirculation, and the acid content in the alkylate stream?
5. Identify alternative catalysts for alkylation operation
a) From literature/web search, list at least two (3) other catalysts and describe how
they work
b) Provide technical as well as a brief economic comparison between the catalyst in
actual use and those alternatives in terms of (i) impact on process design, (ii)

Acid consumption, (iii) Handling, (iv) regeneration, (v) Safety, and (vi) cost
c) Make a recommendation among all catalysts compared above

find the cost of your paper

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