calculate the Arithmetic Mean (AM), Geometric Mean (GM) and Standard Deviation (s) of returns of each of the five asset classes.

Briefly discuss the five asset classes in Table 1 of Appendix 1. Using the data from Table 1, calculate the Arithmetic Mean (AM), Geometric Mean (GM) and Standard Deviation (s) of returns of each of the five asset classes. Briefly, discuss the risk-return characteristics of each asset class with reference to these measures [What does the data say in terms of the risk and return of the different assets? How about using past rates of return to estimate expected returns and volatility? Arithmetic versus geometric mean? ](Yr1 2.80% 6.30% -9.10% 6.40% -5.70%Yr2 6.70% 4.30% -11.89% 1.82% -17.40%Yr3 -12.10% 4.80% -22.10% 1.24% 49.60%Yr4 9.70% 5.30% 28.68% 0.98% -0.10%Yr5 22.80% 5.30% 10.88% 2.16% 36.60%Yr6 17.60% 5.50% 4.91% 4.16% 43.20%Yr7 19.00% 6.30% 15.79% 5.24% -4.10%Yr8 11.80% 6.80% 5.49% 4.24% 60.20%Yr9 -41.30% 4.30% -37.00% 0.16% -63.10%Yr10 30.80% 3.80% 26.46% 0.12% 81.40%Yr11 -2.60% 4.80% 15.06% 0.18% 17.90%Yr12 -14.50% 4.30% 2.11% 0.07% 12.80%Yr13 14.60% 3.00% 16.00% 0.16% -0.30%Yr14 15.10% 2.50% 32.39% 0.09% -2.70%Yr15 1.10% 2.50% 13.69% 0.12% -48.80%Yr16 -2.10% 2.00% 1.38% 0.24% -33.90%Yr17 7.00% 1.50% 11.96% 0.54% 51.50%Yr18 7.00% 1.50% 21.83% 1.30% 21.20%Yr19 -6.90% 1.50% -4.48% 2.27% -24.10%Yr20 18.40% 0.75% 31.49% 1.55% 25.40%) 2. Construct an efficient portfolio. Assume the risk-free rate over the period is 1.75%. Calculate the Efficient Frontier and Capital Allocation Line (CAL) for the five asset classes using the Excel Solver Tool. You will also need to calculate and provide the ‘Bordered Covariance’ and ‘Correlation Matrices’. Discuss the implications of these five assets on efficient frontier and CAL. [[Efficient frontier: all the portfolios such that, for a given level of expected return, the variance (risk) is minimal. Watch the accompanying video on the Learning Portal to learn how to use Excel Solver. Insert the chart with the frontier in the body of the report. Indicate the optimal portfolio and, if possible, the optimal complete portfolio. Discuss the allocation found in light of assets’ characteristics.] 3. Synthesise the various Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) models in the four credible source references listed (i.e. Bodie, Zane & Marcus 2018; McKay, Shapiro & Thomas 2018; Page & Panariello 2018; and Santacruz 2016) to provide an in-depth and critical discussion of your results from parts a. and b. Why (or why not) is minimum- variance portfolio still liked by academics and practitioners? [Critically discuss the Markowitz model and others. Examples: SIM, CAPM, Black-Treynor, APT, multi-index models to cite a few. Elaborate on plausibility of assumptions and whether the models are used in practice. Make sure to read/cite suggested articles] Stock price, So = 84, Excersise price, X= 78, Interest Rate, r = 2.9 annually, Time to expiration , t=.5 everyth 6 moths, Standard deviation=0.3 annually.GOLD prises in USD for 15 days (ranges between 1700 to 1750).Average return, x=fund portofolio 16% and Market 12%Beta= 1.19 fund and 1 MarketStandard deviation = 21% fund and 16% Marketnonsystematic risk = 7% for funds 0 for Market

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