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Do you agree with the court’s approach? If not, how should it have reasoned?

In the online child grooming case of R v Gajjar [2008] VSCA 268 (18 December 2008), the Victorian Court of Appeal was asked to consider arguments that the sentence imposed was excessive, considering the fact there had been no actual child involved, with police instead posing as 14-year-old ‘Lisa’, and that there had been a degree of entrapment. The court responded, at [44]–[46]:

It has been observed, correctly in our view, that the fact that there was no actual child victim in this case does not of itself exclude imprisonment as a sentencing outcome. The offence is designed to be preventive. It is likely to be detected only through the use of undercover police techniques.

We reject the submission that there was an element of entrapment in what….

D Keats Citron and M A Franks, ‘Criminalizing Revenge Porn’ (2014) 49 Wake Forest Law Review 345; University of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-1, state at p 347 (notes omitted) in reference to the United States:

D Keats Citron and M A Franks, ‘Criminalizing Revenge Porn’ (2014) 49 Wake Forest Law Review 345; University of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-1, state at p 347 (notes omitted) in reference to the United States:

Revenge porn victims have only recently come forward to describe the grave harms they have suffered, including stalking, loss of professional and educational opportunities, and psychological damage. As with domestic violence and sexual assault, victims of revenge porn suffer negative consequences for speaking out, including the risk of increased harm. We are only now beginning to get a sense of how large the problem of revenge porn is now that brave, outspoken victims have opened a space for others to tell their stories. The fact that non-consensual porn so often….

If such evidentiary standards are not followed, what adverse consequences might there be? Are there other ways of ensuring integrity of investigations?

In G Urbas and K-K R Choo, ‘Resource Materials on Technology Enabled Crime’, Technical and Background Paper no. 28, Australian Institute of Criminology, 2008, techniques of cybercrime investigation are described (p 49):

Law enforcement officers, usually assisted by trained computer forensic analysts with specialist skills in computer investigations, play a critical role in relation to electronic evidence. The strict evidentiary requirements for criminal prosecutions mean that there must be a demonstrable chain of custody in relation to any evidence collected, so that no reasonable doubt can be raised in relation to the authenticity and integrity of the data presented to court. To establish a chain of custody, organisations should ideally:

create an evidence copy of an electronic record. Such copies can be created by various means including reproducing….

Where international co-operation is lacking, are such methods justifiable in order to bring cyber criminals to justice? What are the risks involved?

In K Soukieh, ‘Cybercrime — The Shifting Doctrine of Justification’ (2011) 10(1) Canberra Law Review 221, an infamous case is discussed:

It is worth mentioning here the controversial case of Vasiliy Gorshkov, who was sentenced to thirty-six months in a US prison after being convicted on 20 counts of conspiracy, various computer crimes, and fraud committed against the Speakeasy Network of Seattle, Washington. Gorshkov had been lured from Russia to the US by FBI agents posing as potential employers, and then arrested. There being no extradition treaty between the two countries, and limited cooperation between law enforcement agencies, the FBI sourced their information about Gorshkov by hacking a pair of computers in Russia.

In an unprecedented response the Russian Federal Security Service charged the agent (Michael Schuller) with….

In studying the functional relationships between the motor cortex and the spinal cord, which of the following effects of cortical stimulation on synaptic potentials would an investigator be likely to observe?

In studying the functional relationships between the motor cortex and the spinal cord, which of the following effects of cortical stimulation on synaptic potentials would an investigator be likely to observe?

a. The largest potentials would be seen in spinal motor neurons that innervate proximal muscles

b. The largest potentials would be seen in spinal motor neurons that innervate distal muscles

c. The potentials seen in spinal motor neurons that innervate proximal and distal muscles would be approximately equivalent

d. The largest potentials would be seen in spinal sensory neurons that carry information from spindle afferents to the cerebellum

e. The largest potentials would be seen in spinal sensory neurons that carry information from proprioceptors to the thalamus

‘I just don’t understand it!’ Barry had received his accountant’s calculation of his business profit, showing an accrual profit for his first year in business of $45 290.

‘I just don’t understand it!’ Barry had received his accountant’s calculation of his business profit, showing an accrual profit for his first year in business of $45 290. ‘If I made so much money, why don’t I have it in the bank? My bank account shows only $15 040 on hand!’

Barry operates Barry Supply, which provides stationery and office supplies to business customers. He has no store, just a small rented warehouse, and only one employee. Here are the data that Barry and his accountant used. Explain clearly to Barry:

1 How the accountant calculated the $45 290 profit.

2 Why there is only $15 040 cash on hand.

Companies struggle to fill quarter of skilled jobs vacancies

Companies struggle to fill quarter of skilled jobs vacancies

Britain’s companies say it has become harder to find skilled workers than at any other time in a decade. About 209,000 job vacancies – or one in every four – are proving hard to fill because of a shortage of candidates with the right skills. This is the highest proportion since 2005, according to a biennial survey of about 90,000 companies. The survey by the UK Commission for Employment and Skills, a government quango, shows the proportion of ‘skill shortage vacancies’ has increased steadily from a low of 15 per cent of total vacancies in 2011. Skill shortages have increased as the economy has recovered after the financial crisis and unemployment has dropped. Joblessness is now just 5.1 per cent,….

Zizzi cuts staff perks as minimum wage increases

Zizzi cuts staff perks as minimum wage increases

The private-equity owned restaurant chain Zizzi has become the latest business to respond to the higher minimum wage by cutting staff perks and benefits. The share of the service charge and credit card tips that waiters keep has been reduced, while free food for staff has been restricted to a margherita pizza or a plate of spaghetti. The Italian food chain, which is owned by Bridgepoint, joins Tesco, Caffè Nero and many others in chipping away at staff benefits after the government increased the minimum wage for workers aged 25 and over to £7.20 an hour. Zizzi told employees on April 1st 2016 it would introduce a discounted menu for all staff, but pared back the free food menu for….

The global economy has created a complex and dynamic environment in which organisations must learn to compete effectively in order to achieve sustainable growth.

The global economy has created a complex and dynamic environment in which organisations must learn to compete effectively in order to achieve sustainable growth. The global environment has not only changed the way business is conducted, but has also created the need for organisations to manage their talent within the global context.

India has its challenges: it will increase its working age population by an additional 200 million, and it is estimated that 70 per cent of Indians will be of working age by 2025. However, this could easily become a disaster if the substantial government initiatives aimed at enhancing the employability of these workers do not succeed. One major challenge for India is the currently limited employment options for its massive cohort of unskilled contract workers. India….

Singapore does have talent – and potentially plenty of it. In a nation dependent on human capital more than any other resource, identifying talented individuals within an organisation is critical.

Singapore does have talent – and potentially plenty of it. In a nation dependent on human capital more than any other resource, identifying talented individuals within an organisation is critical.

According to new research, ‘talent’ are individuals with the ability to adapt and respond to changes and challenges, rather than someone with an impressive degree. The research, ‘Future of Talent in Singapore 2030’, conducted by the CIPD, the professional body for HR and people development, and the Human Capital Leadership Institute (HCLI), found that the potential pool of talent in Singapore could be larger if organisations are prepared to accept less conventional candidates and the different ways of thinking and working that they offer.

‘For Singapore’s talent to emerge, business leaders need to change the cultural status quo….