Daily Archives: December 1, 2020

‘Public law has grown to meet the needs of justice on the one hand and of good government on the other by holding public administration to as much of its public undertakings – its policies – as is necessary and fair.’

‘Public law has grown to meet the needs of justice on the one hand and of good government on the other by holding public administration to as much of its public undertakings – its policies – as is necessary and fair.’

1. In the wake of a series of recent public health scandals, legislation has been introduced which allows local councils to license hot-food vendors, the (fictional) Fast Food Act 2008. Under this Act, it is an offence to sell hot food without a licence. Hugh, Gordon and Jaime are three vendors who have been refused licences by Oldcastle Council. Hugh was informed by Delia, who chairs the council’s Licensing Committee, that his request for a licence was rejected because his prices were too high. Hugh argues that….

Assess why it has proven so difficult to design an operating procedure which allows the European Court to effectively manage its case load.

‘The results so far achieved within the framework of Protocol No. 14 are encouraging, particularly as a result of the measures taken by the Court to increase efficiency and address the number of clearly inadmissible applications pending before it. However, the growing number of potentially well-founded applications pending before the Court is a serious problem that causes concern . . . Protocol No. 14 alone will not provide a lasting and comprehensive solution to the problems facing the Convention system. Further measures are therefore also needed to ensure that the Convention system remains effective and can continue to protect the rights and freedoms of over 800 million people in Europe.’

Assess why it has proven so difficult to design an operating procedure which allows the European Court to….

Evaluate whether the operation of human rights under the ECHR really does force public authorities to ‘act in ways that fly in the face of common sense’?

‘[I]n this country we are proud to stand up for human rights, at home and abroad. It is part of the British tradition. But what is alien to our tradition – and now exerting such a corrosive influence on behaviour and morality is the twisting and misrepresenting of human rights in a way that has undermined personal responsibility . . . The truth is, the interpretation of human rights legislation has exerted a chilling effect on public sector organisations, leading them to act in ways that fly in the face of common sense, offend our sense of right and wrong, and undermine responsibility.’

Evaluate whether the operation of human rights under the ECHR really does force public authorities to ‘act in ways that fly in the face of….

Calculate the necessary equivalent circuit parameters and sketch the direct-axis and quadrature-axis voltage equivalent circuits.

Use the machine parameters in Problem 8.4 to perform the necessary calculations to draw the steady-state voltage-current phasor diagram when the machine is operating at rated terminal voltage (Et = 1 pu) and rated terminal current (It = 1 pu) at 0.9 leading power factor. Assume no saturation.

Problem 8.4

The parameters of a 60 Hz synchronous machine in the form employed by most manufacturers are as follows:

The equivalent circuit of a synchronous machine requires the following parameters:

Calculate the necessary equivalent circuit parameters and sketch the direct-axis and quadrature-axis voltage equivalent circuits. Note that the unit for the time constants given here is seconds.

Calculate the necessary equivalent circuit parameters and sketch the direct-axis and quadrature-axis voltage equivalent circuits.

Use the machine parameters and the machine loading in Problems 8.4 and 8.5 to initialize the synchronous machine model in Figure 8.12, that is, find the steady-state values for 

Problem 8.4 and 8.5

Use the machine parameters in Problem 8.4 to perform the necessary calculations to draw the steady-state voltage-current phasor diagram when the machine is operating at rated terminal voltage (Et = 1 pu) and rated terminal current (It = 1 pu) at 0.9 leading power factor. Assume no saturation.

Problem 8.4

The parameters of a 60 Hz synchronous machine in the form employed by most manufacturers are as follows:

The equivalent circuit of a synchronous machine requires the following parameters:

Calculate the necessary equivalent circuit parameters and sketch the direct-axis and quadrature-axis voltage equivalent….

Use the machine parameters and the machine loading in Problems 8.4 and 8.5 to initialize the synchronous machine model in Figure 8.12, that is, find the steady-state values for 

Repeat Problems 8.5 and 8.6, for the case when the machine is operating at rated terminal voltage (Et = 1 pu) and rated terminal current (It = 1 pu) at unity power factor. Assume no saturation.

Problem 8.6

Use the machine parameters and the machine loading in Problems 8.4 and 8.5 to initialize the synchronous machine model in Figure 8.12, that is, find the steady-state values for 

Problem 8.5

Use the machine parameters in Problem 8.4 to perform the necessary calculations to draw the steady-state voltage-current phasor diagram when the machine is operating at rated terminal voltage (Et = 1 pu) and rated terminal current (It = 1 pu) at 0.9 leading power factor. Assume no saturation.

Find the critical clearing time of Generator 11 using the PEBS method.

For the NPCC system used in Problem 5.6, a fault was applied on Line 32-30 near Bus 32, and cleared by removing the line. The critical clearing time was computed using the constant-impedance model for all the loads. In this problem, repeat the critical clearing time computation, accurate to the nearest 0.01 sec, using constant power for all the active power loads and constant impedance for all the reactive power loads. Take the system as unstable if the simulation terminates because the network solution does not converge,

Problem 5.6

(NPCC system, Generator 11) Repeat Example 5.5, but the 3-phase short-circuit fault is applied on Line 32-30 close to Bus 32, which is cleared by tripping Line 32-30. Find the critical clearing time of Generator 11 using the PEBS….

Calculate the electromechanical modes and compare them with those in Part 1.

For the two-area, four-machine system shown in Figure 6.2 and used for Problem 6.6, compute the damping and frequency of the three swing modes (two local modes and one interarea mode) using (a) constant-impedance load model for both P and Q loads, (b) constant-current load model for both P and Q loads, and (c) constant-power load model for both P and Q loads. The system data file is provided in the Problem 11.3 folder. Use only the Part 1 operating condition in Problem 6.6.

Figure 6.2

Problem 6.6

(Interarea mode)

1) Obtain the linearized model of the 2-area, 4-machine system in the data file data2aemh.m, using only the electromechanical model data and the constant-impedance load model. Note that in this data set, the inertias of the machines….

Find the transfer function from Δto the gate position ΔG, with the transient droop function included.

The governor configuration of a hydraulic turbine is shown in Figure 12.43, where Rp = 0.05 and RT = 0.5.

1) Find the transfer function from Δto the gate position ΔG, with the transient droop function included.

2) The system is operating at steady state with = ref = 1.0 pu. Suppose there is a sudden loss of generation in the system such that the system frequency drops quickly, represented by (0+) = 0.995 pu (300 mHz variation at a nominal frequency of 60 Hz). Calculate the incremental gate opening ΔG and the incremental mechanical output power ΔPm at the initial time t = 0+ (instantaneous) and at t = ∞ (steady state). Assume that remains at 0.995 pu in steady state. Repeat the calculation with no transient….

provide responses to the below four questions to look for incidents that can significantly impact operations and company revenues.

One of the components of the ERM—Integrated Framework is “Event (or Risk) Identification,” where incidents (i.e., events or risks) could occur in the business organization and significantly affect its goals, objectives, and/or strategy. These incidents can be identified through responding to the following four management questions: a. What could go wrong? b. How can it go wrong? c. What is the potential harm? d. What can be done about it? The chapter described an example of a common business scenario: An office desk manufacturer that relies on sourcing the required wood to build the desks from specific regions in the Caribbean. Task: Identify two additional potential and common scenarios that may take place in a business environment. Then, provide responses to the above four questions to look for….